Oscar Wilde Miscellaneous: A Florentine Tragedy – a Fragment, and La Sainte Courtisane – a Fragment

Oscar Wilde Miscellaneous: A Florentine Tragedy - a Fragment, and La Sainte Courtisane - a Fragment by Oscar Wilde

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Oscar Wilde

A book by Oscar Wilde

Oscar Wilde (English Oscar Fingal O`Flahertie Wills Wilde; October 16, 1854, Dublin - November 30, 1900, Paris) - English philosopher, esthete, writer, poet of Irish origin. One of the most famous playwrights of the late Victorian period, a major figure in European decadence.  Wikipedia [collapse collapsed title = Biography] Son of a surgeon and a writer. Oscar Wilde wore a top hat from the age of 12 and knew how to charm any interlocutor. Contemporaries recalled that his conversations were as full of witty aphorisms as his plays. And the transcripts of these conversations would not be inferior to the dramatic works or fairy tales of Oscar Wilde. He himself said that for him writing plays is no more work than talking. Wilde spent two weeks on each of his most famous comedies. In life and literature, he chose for himself the role of a great esthete, even spoke in public not with his own voice, but imitated the voice of Sarah Bernhardt. Wilde avoided commonplaces, and his speech was full of paradoxes - "commonplaces inside out." The unnatural attracted him: "Better a hundred unnatural sins than one unnatural virtue." Convicted of unnatural sexual intercourse, Wilde survived humiliation in prison and watched as his name was defamed, and books were taken from libraries and clubs. In four years, from a blooming handsome man, he turned into a blind and deaf person who had lost the will to live. In the early years of the 20th century, when Wilde`s name was erased from the history of English literature in his homeland, interest in him only grew in Russia and other European countries. The first serious critic who drew the attention of Russian readers to Wilde`s works was Korney Ivanovich Chukovsky, then a correspondent for the Odesskie Novosti newspaper in London. Oscar Wilde was born on October 16, 1854 in the capital of Ireland - Dublin, the city that gave the world a constellation of outstanding writers (among them - J.

Swift, R.B.Sheridan, O.

Goldsmith, J.

B.

Shaw, J.

Joyce, U B.

Yeats, B.

Stoker). Some Russian-language sources (for example, K.

Chukovsky in his article "Oscar Wilde") claim that Oscar was born in 1856. This is incorrect and has long been disproved. This was due to the fact that Wilde, who was in love with his youth, often reduced himself two years in conversations (and in his marriage certificate, for example, he directly indicated exactly 1856 as his date of birth). Wilde`s father was one of the most prominent doctors not only in Ireland, but throughout Great Britain - an ophthalmologist and otolaryngologist Sir William Robert Wilde. A man of exceptional erudition, William Wilde also studied archeology and Irish folklore. Oscar`s mother - Lady Jane Francesca Wilde (née Elgy) - a famous Irish socialite, a very extravagant woman who adored theatrical effects, a poetess who wrote fiery patriotic poems under the pseudonym Speranza (Italian Speranza - hope) and convinced of the greatness that she was born for ... From his father Oscar inherited a rare ability to work and curiosity, from his mother - a dreamy and somewhat exalted mind, an interest in the mysterious and fantastic, a tendency to invent and tell extraordinary stories. But not only these qualities he inherited from her. No less influenced by the atmosphere of the literary salon of Lady Wilde, in which the young years of the future writer passed. A passion for posture, an emphasized aristocracy, were brought up in him from childhood. She perfectly knew the ancient languages, she opened before him the beauty of the "divine Hellenic speech." Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides became his companions from childhood ...

1864-1871. - Studying at the Royal School of Portor (Enniskillen, near Dublin). He was not a child prodigy, but his most brilliant talent was quick reading. Oscar was very lively and talkative, and even then he was famous for his ability to humorously alter school events. At school, Wilde even received a special prize for knowledge of the Greek original of the New Testament. After graduating from Portoro with a gold medal, Wilde was awarded the Royal School Fellowship to study at Trinity College Dublin (Trinity College). At Trinity College (1871-1874), Wilde studied ancient history and culture, where he again brilliantly showed his abilities in ancient languages. Here, for the first time, he listened to a course of lectures on aesthetics, and thanks to close communication with the curator - professor of ancient history J.P.

Mahaffi, a refined and highly educated person, he gradually began to acquire extremely important elements of his future aesthetic behavior (some contempt for generally accepted morality, dandyism in clothes, sympathy for the Pre-Raphaelites, light self-irony, Hellenistic predilections). In 1874 Wilde, having won a scholarship to study at the Oxford Magdalene College in the classical department, entered the intellectual citadel of England - Oxford. At Oxford, Wilde created himself. He developed a crystal English accent: "My Irish accent was one of many that I forgot at Oxford." He also gained, as he wanted, a reputation for shining effortlessly. Here his special philosophy of art took shape. Even then, his name began to illuminate with various entertaining stories, sometimes caricatures. So, according to one of the stories, in order to teach Wilde a lesson, whom his classmates disliked and whom the athletes hated, he was dragged up the slope of a high hill and only released at the top. He got to his feet, dusted himself off and said, "The view from this hill is truly charming." But this was exactly what the aesthetic Wilde needed, who later admitted: “It is not his deeds that are true in a person`s life, but the legends that surround him. Legends should never be destroyed. Through them we can dimly see the real face of a person.

" At Oxford, Wilde listened to the incomparable and fiery lectures of art theorist John Ruskin and a student of the latter, Walter Peyter. Both masters of thought praised beauty, but Ruskin saw it only in synthesis with good, while Peyter allowed some kind of evil admixture in beauty. Under Ruskin`s charm, Wilde was throughout his entire period at Oxford. Later he will write to him in a letter: “You have something from a prophet, from a priest, from a poet; besides, the gods have endowed you with such eloquence that they have not endowed anyone else, and your words, filled with fiery passion and wonderful music, made the deaf among us hear and the blind - to see. While still studying at Oxford, Wilde visited Italy and Greece and was captivated by these countries, their cultural heritage and beauty. These travels have the most soulful influence on him. At Oxford, he also receives the prestigious Newigate Prize for the poem Ravenna, a monetary award approved in the 18th century by Sir Roger Newigate for Oxford University students who will win the annual competition of non-dramatic poems limited to no more than 300 lines ( John Ruskin also received this award at one time). After graduating from the university (1878), Oscar Wilde moved to London. In the center of the capital, he settled in a rented apartment, and Lady Jane Francesca Wilde, already better known by that time as Speranza, settled in the neighborhood. Thanks to his talent, wit and ability to attract attention, Wilde quickly merged into the high life of London. Wilde began to "treat" the visitors of the salons: "You must come, this Irish wit will be here today." He is making the "most necessary" revolution for English society — a revolution in fashion. From now on, he appeared in society in mind-blowing outfits invented by himself. Today it was short culottes and silk stockings, tomorrow - a vest embroidered with flowers, the day after tomorrow - lemon gloves combined with a lush lace frill. An indispensable accessory is a green-dyed carnation in the buttonhole. There was no clowning in this: the impeccable taste allowed Wilde to combine the incongruous. And the carnation and sunflower, along with the lily, were considered the most perfect flowers among the Pre-Raphaelite artists. His first poetry collection Poems (Poems; 1881) was written in the spirit of the "Pre-Raphaelite brothers", and was published shortly before Wilde went to lecture in the United States. His early poems are marked by the influence of impressionism, they express direct single impressions, they are incredibly picturesque. At the very beginning of 1882, Wilde stepped off a steamer in the port of New York, where he threw in Wilde`s way to reporters who had pounced on him: "Gentlemen, the ocean disappointed me, it is not at all as majestic as I thought." Going through customs procedures, when asked if he has anything to be declared, he, according to one version, replied: "I have nothing to declare, except my genius." From now on, the entire press monitors the actions of the English esthete in America. He ended his first lecture, The English Renaissance of Art, with the words: “We all waste our days in search of the meaning of life. Know this, this meaning is in Art.

" And the audience applauded warmly. At his lecture in Boston, a group of local dandies (60 students from Harvard University) in short breeches with open calves and tuxedos, with sunflowers in their hands, appeared in the hall just before Wilde`s exit - 60 students from Harvard University. Their goal was to discourage the lecturer. Stepping on the stage, Wilde unpretentiously began a lecture and, as if by chance inspecting the fantastic figures, exclaimed with a smile: "This is the first time I ask the Almighty to rid me of my followers!" One young man wrote to his mother at this time, impressed by Wilde`s visit to college, where he studied: “He has excellent diction, and his ability to express his thoughts is worthy of the highest praise. The phrases that he utters are euphonic and now and then flash with gems of beauty. ...

His conversation is very pleasant - light, beautiful, entertaining.

" Wilde conquered all people with his charm and charm. In Chicago, when asked how he liked San Francisco, he replied: "This is Italy, but without its art." This entire American tour was a model of boldness and grace, as well as inappropriateness and self-promotion. Wilde jokingly boasted to his longtime acquaintance James McNeill Whistler in a letter from Ottawa: "I have already civilized America - only heaven remains!" After spending a year in America, Wilde returned to London in high spirits. And immediately went to Paris. There he gets acquainted with the brightest silhouettes of world literature (Paul Verlaine, Emile Zola, Victor Hugo, Stéphane Mallarmé, Anatole France, etc.) and won their sympathies without much difficulty. Returns to his homeland. Meets Constance Lloyd, falls in love. At the age of 29, he becomes a family man. They have two sons (Cyril and Vivian), for whom Wilde composes fairy tales. A little later, he wrote them down on paper and published 2 collections of fairy tales - "The Happy Prince and Other Stories" (The Happy Prince and Other Stories; 1888) and "The House of Pomegranates" (1891). Everyone in London knew Wilde. He was the most desirable guest in any salon. But at the same time a flurry of criticism falls upon him, which he easily - quite in Wilde`s way - throws away from himself. They draw caricatures on him and wait for a reaction. And Wilde plunges into creativity. At that time he earned his living in journalism (for example, he worked in the magazine "Women`s World"). Bernard Shaw spoke highly of Wilde`s journalism. In 1887 he published the stories The Canterville Ghost, The Crime of Lord Arthur Savile, The Sphinx Without a Riddle, The Millionaire Model, The Portrait of Mr.

W.

H., which compiled a collection of his stories. However, Wilde did not like to write down everything that came to his mind, many of the stories with which he fascinated the audience remained unwritten. In 1890, the only novel published that finally brings Wilde a stunning success - "The Picture of Dorian Gray" (The Picture of Dorian Gray). It was published in the Lippincotts Munsley Magazine. But "all-righteous" bourgeois criticism accused his novel of immorality. In response to 216 (!) Printed responses to The Picture of Dorian Gray, Wilde wrote over 10 open letters to the editors of British newspapers and magazines, explaining that art does not depend on morality. Moreover, he wrote, those who did not notice morality in the novel are complete hypocrites, since the moral of the whole thing is that it is impossible to kill conscience with impunity. In 1891, the novel with significant additions was published as a separate book, and Wilde supplements his masterpiece with a special preface, which henceforth becomes a manifesto to aestheticism - the direction and the religion that he created. 1891-1895 - the years of Wilde`s dizzying glory. In 1891, a collection of theoretical articles, Intensions, was published, where Wilde expounds to readers his creed - his aesthetic doctrine. The pathos of the book in the glorification of Art - the greatest shrine, the supreme deity, whose fanatical priest was Wilde. In the same 1891 he wrote The Soul of Man under Socialism, which rejects marriage, family and private property. Wilde argues that "man is made for a better purpose than digging in the mud." He dreams of the time when “there will be no more people living in stinking dens, dressed in stinking rags ...

When hundreds of thousands of unemployed, brought to the most outrageous poverty, will not stomp on the streets ...

when every member of society will be a participant in the general contentment and well-being "...

Separately, there is a one-act drama on a biblical plot, written in French at that time -" Salome "(Salomé; 1891). According to Wilde, it was specially written for Sarah Bernhardt, "that snake of the ancient Nile." However, in London it was banned from being staged by censors: in Great Britain, theatrical performances based on biblical subjects were prohibited. The play was published in 1893, and in 1894 its translation into English with illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley was published. The play was staged for the first time in Paris in 1896. Salome is based on the episode of the death of the biblical prophet John the Baptist (in the play he appears under the name of Jokanaan), which is reflected in the New Testament (Matt 14: 1-12, etc.), but the version proposed in the play by Wilde is by no means canonical. In 1892, the first comedy of the "brilliant Oscar" was written and staged - "Lady Windermere`s Fan", the success of which made Wilde the most popular person in London. Known for another aesthetic act of Wilde, associated with the premiere of the comedy. Stepping onto the stage at the end of the production, Oscar took a drag on his cigarette, after which he began like this: “Ladies and gentlemen! It is probably not very polite of me to smoke while standing in front of you, but ...

it is equally impolite to disturb me when I smoke.

" In 1893, his next comedy, The Woman of No Importance, was released, in which the name itself is built on a paradox - before that, the "apostle of Beauty" felt this welcome to his family. Striking in a creative sense becomes 1895.

Wilde wrote and staged two brilliant plays - "An Ideal Husband" and "The Importance of Being Earnest". In comedies, Wilde`s art as a witty interlocutor manifested itself in all its brilliance: his dialogues are magnificent. Newspapers called him "the best of modern playwrights", noting the intelligence, originality, perfection of style. The sharpness of thoughts, the refinement of paradoxes are so delightful that the reader is intoxicated by them throughout the entire duration of the play. He knows how to subordinate everything to the game, quite often the play of the mind captivates Wilde so much that it turns into an end in itself, then the impression of significance and brightness is truly created from scratch. And each of them has its own Oscar Wilde, throwing portions of brilliant paradoxes. Back in 1891, Wilde met Alfred Douglas, who was 17 years younger than Wilde. Oscar, in love with everything beautiful, fell in love with the young man, and therefore stopped often seeing his wife and children. But Alfred Douglas, a spoiled aristocrat (Bosey, as he was playfully called), had little understanding of who Wilde was. Their relationship was tied by money and the whims of Douglas, which Wilde dutifully fulfilled. Wilde, in the full sense of the word, contained Douglas. Oscar allowed himself to be robbed, separated from his family, and deprived of the opportunity to create. Their relationship, of course, could not help but see London. Douglas, on the other hand, had a terrible relationship with his father, the Marquis of Queensberry, an extremely eccentric and narrow-minded, uncouth boor who had lost the disposition of society towards him. Father and son constantly quarreled, wrote insulting letters to each other. Queensberry firmly believed that Wilde had a significant influence on Alfred, and began to crave the crushing of the reputation of the London dandy and literary man, in order to thereby restore his long-shaken reputation. Back in 1885, an amendment was passed to the British criminal law prohibiting "indecent relations between adult men", even if by mutual consent. Queensberry took advantage of this and sued Wilde, gathering witnesses who were ready to convict the writer of having ties with the boys. Friends urgently advised Wilde to leave the country, because in this case, it was clear that he was already doomed. But Wilde decides to stand to the end. There were no empty seats in the courtroom, people flocked to listen to the trial of the talented esthete. Wilde behaved heroically, defended the purity of his relationship with Douglas and denied their sexual nature. However, in 1895, Wilde was sentenced to two years in prison and corrective labor on charges of sodomy. The prison broke him completely. Most of his old friends turned their backs on him. But the few who remained literally helped him stay alive. Alfred Douglas, whom he loved so ardently and to whom he wrote sultry love letters while still at large, never came to him and never wrote to him. In prison, Wilde learns that his mother, whom he loved most in the world, died, his wife emigrated and changed her surname, as well as the surname of her sons (from now on they were not Wildes, but Hollands). In prison, Wilde writes a bitter confession in the form of a letter to Douglas, which he calls "Epistola: In Carcere et Vinculis" (Latin "Message: in prison and chains"), and later his close friend Robert Ross renamed it "De Profundis" (Latin .

"From the Depths"; thus begins Psalm 129 in the Synodal Bible). In it we see a completely different charming Wilde of Dorian times. In it, he is a man suffering from pain, blaming himself for everything and realizing that "the worst thing is not that life breaks the heart ...

but that it turns the heart to stone." This confession is a bitter account of myself and the understanding that, probably, creative inspiration will now forever remain within the prison walls: turning points: when my father sent me to Oxford and when society imprisoned me.

" Relying on the financial support of close friends, released in May 1897, Wilde moved to France and changed his name to Sebastian Melmoth. The surname Melmoth was borrowed from the Gothic novel of the famous English writer of the 18th century Charles Maturin, Wilde`s great-uncle, Melmoth the Wanderer. In France, Wilde wrote the famous poem "The Ballad of Reading Gaol" (1898), signed by him with the pseudonym C.3.3. - that was Oscar`s prison number. And this was the highest and last poetic rise of the priest of aestheticism. Oscar Wilde died in exile in France on November 30, 1900 from acute meningitis caused by an ear infection. Shortly before his death, he said about himself as follows: “I will not survive the 19th century. The British will not bear my continued presence.

" He was buried in Paris at the Bagno cemetery. After about 10 years, he was reburied in the Pere Lachaise cemetery, and a winged sphinx made of stone by Jacob Epstein was installed on the grave. In June 1923, at a session of automatic writing in the presence of colleagues, the mathematician Soul announced that he had received a long and beautiful otherworldly message from Wilde. He allegedly asked to convey that he did not die, but lives and will live in the hearts of those who are able to feel "the beauty of forms and sounds poured into nature." At the end of 2007, after a special survey of TV viewers by the BBC Corporation, Oscar Wilde was recognized as the wittiest man in Great Britain. He bypassed Shakespeare himself and W.

Churchill.

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Oscar Wilde Miscellaneous: A Florentine Tragedy - a Fragment, and La Sainte Courtisane - a Fragment PDF

Oscar Wilde (English Oscar Fingal O`Flahertie Wills Wilde; October 16, 1854, Dublin - November 30, 1900, Paris) - English philosopher, esthete, writer, poet of Irish origin. One of the most famous playwrights of the late Victorian period, a major figure in European decadence.  Wikipedia [collapse collapsed title = Biography] Son of a surgeon and a writer. Oscar Wilde wore a top hat from the age of 12 and knew how to charm any interlocutor. Contemporaries recalled that his conversations were as full of witty aphorisms as his plays. And the transcripts of these conversations would not be inferior to the dramatic works or fairy tales of Oscar Wilde. He himself said that for him writing plays is no more work than talking. Wilde spent two weeks on each of his most famous comedies. In life and literature, he chose for himself the role of a great esthete, even spoke in public not with his own voice, but imitated the voice of Sarah Bernhardt. Wilde avoided commonplaces, and his speech was full of paradoxes - "commonplaces inside out." The unnatural attracted him: "Better a hundred unnatural sins than one unnatural virtue." Convicted of unnatural sexual intercourse, Wilde survived humiliation in prison and watched as his name was defamed, and books were taken from libraries and clubs. In four years, from a blooming handsome man, he turned into a blind and deaf person who had lost the will to live. In the early years of the 20th century, when Wilde`s name was erased from the history of English literature in his homeland, interest in him only grew in Russia and other European countries. The first serious critic who drew the attention of Russian readers to Wilde`s works was Korney Ivanovich Chukovsky, then a correspondent for the Odesskie Novosti newspaper in London. Oscar Wilde was born on October 16, 1854 in the capital of Ireland - Dublin, the city that gave the world a constellation of outstanding writers (among them - J. Swift, R.B.Sheridan, O. Goldsmith, J. B. Shaw, J. Joyce, U B. Yeats, B. Stoker). Some Russian-language sources (for example, K. Chukovsky in his article "Oscar Wilde") claim that Oscar was born in 1856. This is incorrect and has long been disproved. This was due to the fact that Wilde, who was in love with his youth, often reduced himself two years in conversations (and in his marriage certificate, for example, he directly indicated exactly 1856 as his date of birth). Wilde`s father was one of the most prominent doctors not only in Ireland, but throughout Great Britain - an ophthalmologist and otolaryngologist Sir William Robert Wilde. A man of exceptional erudition, William Wilde also studied archeology and Irish folklore. Oscar`s mother - Lady Jane Francesca Wilde (née Elgy) - a famous Irish socialite, a very extravagant woman who adored theatrical effects, a poetess who wrote fiery patriotic poems under the pseudonym Speranza (Italian Speranza - hope) and convinced of the greatness that she was born for ... From his father Oscar inherited a rare ability to work and curiosity, from his mother - a dreamy and somewhat exalted mind, an interest in the mysterious and fantastic, a tendency to invent and tell extraordinary stories. But not only these qualities he inherited from her. No less influenced by the atmosphere of the literary salon of Lady Wilde, in which the young years of the future writer passed. A passion for posture, an emphasized aristocracy, were brought up in him from childhood. She perfectly knew the ancient languages, she opened before him the beauty of the "divine Hellenic speech." Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides became his companions from childhood ... 1864-1871. - Studying at the Royal School of Portor (Enniskillen, near Dublin). He was not a child prodigy, but his most brilliant talent was quick reading. Oscar was very lively and talkative, and even then he was famous for his ability to humorously alter school events. At school, Wilde even received a special prize for knowledge of the Greek original of the New Testament. After graduating from Portoro with a gold medal, Wilde was awarded the Royal School Fellowship to study at Trinity College Dublin (Trinity College). At Trinity College (1871-1874), Wilde studied ancient history and culture, where he again brilliantly showed his abilities in ancient languages. Here, for the first time, he listened to a course of lectures on aesthetics, and thanks to close communication with the curator - professor of ancient history J.P. Mahaffi, a refined and highly educated person, he gradually began to acquire extremely important elements of his future aesthetic behavior (some contempt for generally accepted morality, dandyism in clothes, sympathy for the Pre-Raphaelites, light self-irony, Hellenistic predilections). In 1874 Wilde, having won a scholarship to study at the Oxford Magdalene College in the classical department, entered the intellectual citadel of England - Oxford. At Oxford, Wilde created himself. He developed a crystal English accent: "My Irish accent was one of many that I forgot at Oxford." He also gained, as he wanted, a reputation for shining effortlessly. Here his special philosophy of art took shape. Even then, his name began to illuminate with various entertaining stories, sometimes caricatures. So, according to one of the stories, in order to teach Wilde a lesson, whom his classmates disliked and whom the athletes hated, he was dragged up the slope of a high hill and only released at the top. He got to his feet, dusted himself off and said, "The view from this hill is truly charming." But this was exactly what the aesthetic Wilde needed, who later admitted: “It is not his deeds that are true in a person`s life, but the legends that surround him. Legends should never be destroyed. Through them we can dimly see the real face of a person. " At Oxford, Wilde listened to the incomparable and fiery lectures of art theorist John Ruskin and a student of the latter, Walter Peyter. Both masters of thought praised beauty, but Ruskin saw it only in synthesis with good, while Peyter allowed some kind of evil admixture in beauty. Under Ruskin`s charm, Wilde was throughout his entire period at Oxford. Later he will write to him in a letter: “You have something from a prophet, from a priest, from a poet; besides, the gods have endowed you with such eloquence that they have not endowed anyone else, and your words, filled with fiery passion and wonderful music, made the deaf among us hear and the blind - to see. While still studying at Oxford, Wilde visited Italy and Greece and was captivated by these countries, their cultural heritage and beauty. These travels have the most soulful influence on him. At Oxford, he also receives the prestigious Newigate Prize for the poem Ravenna, a monetary award approved in the 18th century by Sir Roger Newigate for Oxford University students who will win the annual competition of non-dramatic poems limited to no more than 300 lines ( John Ruskin also received this award at one time). After graduating from the university (1878), Oscar Wilde moved to London. In the center of the capital, he settled in a rented apartment, and Lady Jane Francesca Wilde, already better known by that time as Speranza, settled in the neighborhood. Thanks to his talent, wit and ability to attract attention, Wilde quickly merged into the high life of London. Wilde began to "treat" the visitors of the salons: "You must come, this Irish wit will be here today." He is making the "most necessary" revolution for English society — a revolution in fashion. From now on, he appeared in society in mind-blowing outfits invented by himself. Today it was short culottes and silk stockings, tomorrow - a vest embroidered with flowers, the day after tomorrow - lemon gloves combined with a lush lace frill. An indispensable accessory is a green-dyed carnation in the buttonhole. There was no clowning in this: the impeccable taste allowed Wilde to combine the incongruous. And the carnation and sunflower, along with the lily, were considered the most perfect flowers among the Pre-Raphaelite artists. His first poetry collection Poems (Poems; 1881) was written in the spirit of the "Pre-Raphaelite brothers", and was published shortly before Wilde went to lecture in the United States. His early poems are marked by the influence of impressionism, they express direct single impressions, they are incredibly picturesque. At the very beginning of 1882, Wilde stepped off a steamer in the port of New York, where he threw in Wilde`s way to reporters who had pounced on him: "Gentlemen, the ocean disappointed me, it is not at all as majestic as I thought." Going through customs procedures, when asked if he has anything to be declared, he, according to one version, replied: "I have nothing to declare, except my genius." From now on, the entire press monitors the actions of the English esthete in America. He ended his first lecture, The English Renaissance of Art, with the words: “We all waste our days in search of the meaning of life. Know this, this meaning is in Art. " And the audience applauded warmly. At his lecture in Boston, a group of local dandies (60 students from Harvard University) in short breeches with open calves and tuxedos, with sunflowers in their hands, appeared in the hall just before Wilde`s exit - 60 students from Harvard University. Their goal was to discourage the lecturer. Stepping on the stage, Wilde unpretentiously began a lecture and, as if by chance inspecting the fantastic figures, exclaimed with a smile: "This is the first time I ask the Almighty to rid me of my followers!" One young man wrote to his mother at this time, impressed by Wilde`s visit to college, where he studied: “He has excellent diction, and his ability to express his thoughts is worthy of the highest praise. The phrases that he utters are euphonic and now and then flash with gems of beauty. ... His conversation is very pleasant - light, beautiful, entertaining. " Wilde conquered all people with his charm and charm. In Chicago, when asked how he liked San Francisco, he replied: "This is Italy, but without its art." This entire American tour was a model of boldness and grace, as well as inappropriateness and self-promotion. Wilde jokingly boasted to his longtime acquaintance James McNeill Whistler in a letter from Ottawa: "I have already civilized America - only heaven remains!" After spending a year in America, Wilde returned to London in high spirits. And immediately went to Paris. There he gets acquainted with the brightest silhouettes of world literature (Paul Verlaine, Emile Zola, Victor Hugo, Stéphane Mallarmé, Anatole France, etc.) and won their sympathies without much difficulty. Returns to his homeland. Meets Constance Lloyd, falls in love. At the age of 29, he becomes a family man. They have two sons (Cyril and Vivian), for whom Wilde composes fairy tales. A little later, he wrote them down on paper and published 2 collections of fairy tales - "The Happy Prince and Other Stories" (The Happy Prince and Other Stories; 1888) and "The House of Pomegranates" (1891). Everyone in London knew Wilde. He was the most desirable guest in any salon. But at the same time a flurry of criticism falls upon him, which he easily - quite in Wilde`s way - throws away from himself. They draw caricatures on him and wait for a reaction. And Wilde plunges into creativity. At that time he earned his living in journalism (for example, he worked in the magazine "Women`s World"). Bernard Shaw spoke highly of Wilde`s journalism. In 1887 he published the stories The Canterville Ghost, The Crime of Lord Arthur Savile, The Sphinx Without a Riddle, The Millionaire Model, The Portrait of Mr. W. H., which compiled a collection of his stories. However, Wilde did not like to write down everything that came to his mind, many of the stories with which he fascinated the audience remained unwritten. In 1890, the only novel published that finally brings Wilde a stunning success - "The Picture of Dorian Gray" (The Picture of Dorian Gray). It was published in the Lippincotts Munsley Magazine. But "all-righteous" bourgeois criticism accused his novel of immorality. In response to 216 (!) Printed responses to The Picture of Dorian Gray, Wilde wrote over 10 open letters to the editors of British newspapers and magazines, explaining that art does not depend on morality. Moreover, he wrote, those who did not notice morality in the novel are complete hypocrites, since the moral of the whole thing is that it is impossible to kill conscience with impunity. In 1891, the novel with significant additions was published as a separate book, and Wilde supplements his masterpiece with a special preface, which henceforth becomes a manifesto to aestheticism - the direction and the religion that he created. 1891-1895 - the years of Wilde`s dizzying glory. In 1891, a collection of theoretical articles, Intensions, was published, where Wilde expounds to readers his creed - his aesthetic doctrine. The pathos of the book in the glorification of Art - the greatest shrine, the supreme deity, whose fanatical priest was Wilde. In the same 1891 he wrote The Soul of Man under Socialism, which rejects marriage, family and private property. Wilde argues that "man is made for a better purpose than digging in the mud." He dreams of the time when “there will be no more people living in stinking dens, dressed in stinking rags ... When hundreds of thousands of unemployed, brought to the most outrageous poverty, will not stomp on the streets ... when every member of society will be a participant in the general contentment and well-being "... Separately, there is a one-act drama on a biblical plot, written in French at that time -" Salome "(Salomé; 1891). According to Wilde, it was specially written for Sarah Bernhardt, "that snake of the ancient Nile." However, in London it was banned from being staged by censors: in Great Britain, theatrical performances based on biblical subjects were prohibited. The play was published in 1893, and in 1894 its translation into English with illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley was published. The play was staged for the first time in Paris in 1896. Salome is based on the episode of the death of the biblical prophet John the Baptist (in the play he appears under the name of Jokanaan), which is reflected in the New Testament (Matt 14: 1-12, etc.), but the version proposed in the play by Wilde is by no means canonical. In 1892, the first comedy of the "brilliant Oscar" was written and staged - "Lady Windermere`s Fan", the success of which made Wilde the most popular person in London. Known for another aesthetic act of Wilde, associated with the premiere of the comedy. Stepping onto the stage at the end of the production, Oscar took a drag on his cigarette, after which he began like this: “Ladies and gentlemen! It is probably not very polite of me to smoke while standing in front of you, but ... it is equally impolite to disturb me when I smoke. " In 1893, his next comedy, The Woman of No Importance, was released, in which the name itself is built on a paradox - before that, the "apostle of Beauty" felt this welcome to his family. Striking in a creative sense becomes 1895. Wilde wrote and staged two brilliant plays - "An Ideal Husband" and "The Importance of Being Earnest". In comedies, Wilde`s art as a witty interlocutor manifested itself in all its brilliance: his dialogues are magnificent. Newspapers called him "the best of modern playwrights", noting the intelligence, originality, perfection of style. The sharpness of thoughts, the refinement of paradoxes are so delightful that the reader is intoxicated by them throughout the entire duration of the play. He knows how to subordinate everything to the game, quite often the play of the mind captivates Wilde so much that it turns into an end in itself, then the impression of significance and brightness is truly created from scratch. And each of them has its own Oscar Wilde, throwing portions of brilliant paradoxes. Back in 1891, Wilde met Alfred Douglas, who was 17 years younger than Wilde. Oscar, in love with everything beautiful, fell in love with the young man, and therefore stopped often seeing his wife and children. But Alfred Douglas, a spoiled aristocrat (Bosey, as he was playfully called), had little understanding of who Wilde was. Their relationship was tied by money and the whims of Douglas, which Wilde dutifully fulfilled. Wilde, in the full sense of the word, contained Douglas. Oscar allowed himself to be robbed, separated from his family, and deprived of the opportunity to create. Their relationship, of course, could not help but see London. Douglas, on the other hand, had a terrible relationship with his father, the Marquis of Queensberry, an extremely eccentric and narrow-minded, uncouth boor who had lost the disposition of society towards him. Father and son constantly quarreled, wrote insulting letters to each other. Queensberry firmly believed that Wilde had a significant influence on Alfred, and began to crave the crushing of the reputation of the London dandy and literary man, in order to thereby restore his long-shaken reputation. Back in 1885, an amendment was passed to the British criminal law prohibiting "indecent relations between adult men", even if by mutual consent. Queensberry took advantage of this and sued Wilde, gathering witnesses who were ready to convict the writer of having ties with the boys. Friends urgently advised Wilde to leave the country, because in this case, it was clear that he was already doomed. But Wilde decides to stand to the end. There were no empty seats in the courtroom, people flocked to listen to the trial of the talented esthete. Wilde behaved heroically, defended the purity of his relationship with Douglas and denied their sexual nature. However, in 1895, Wilde was sentenced to two years in prison and corrective labor on charges of sodomy. The prison broke him completely. Most of his old friends turned their backs on him. But the few who remained literally helped him stay alive. Alfred Douglas, whom he loved so ardently and to whom he wrote sultry love letters while still at large, never came to him and never wrote to him. In prison, Wilde learns that his mother, whom he loved most in the world, died, his wife emigrated and changed her surname, as well as the surname of her sons (from now on they were not Wildes, but Hollands). In prison, Wilde writes a bitter confession in the form of a letter to Douglas, which he calls "Epistola: In Carcere et Vinculis" (Latin "Message: in prison and chains"), and later his close friend Robert Ross renamed it "De Profundis" (Latin . "From the Depths"; thus begins Psalm 129 in the Synodal Bible). In it we see a completely different charming Wilde of Dorian times. In it, he is a man suffering from pain, blaming himself for everything and realizing that "the worst thing is not that life breaks the heart ... but that it turns the heart to stone." This confession is a bitter account of myself and the understanding that, probably, creative inspiration will now forever remain within the prison walls: turning points: when my father sent me to Oxford and when society imprisoned me. " Relying on the financial support of close friends, released in May 1897, Wilde moved to France and changed his name to Sebastian Melmoth. The surname Melmoth was borrowed from the Gothic novel of the famous English writer of the 18th century Charles Maturin, Wilde`s great-uncle, Melmoth the Wanderer. In France, Wilde wrote the famous poem "The Ballad of Reading Gaol" (1898), signed by him with the pseudonym C.3.3. - that was Oscar`s prison number. And this was the highest and last poetic rise of the priest of aestheticism. Oscar Wilde died in exile in France on November 30, 1900 from acute meningitis caused by an ear infection. Shortly before his death, he said about himself as follows: “I will not survive the 19th century. The British will not bear my continued presence. " He was buried in Paris at the Bagno cemetery. After about 10 years, he was reburied in the Pere Lachaise cemetery, and a winged sphinx made of stone by Jacob Epstein was installed on the grave. In June 1923, at a session of automatic writing in the presence of colleagues, the mathematician Soul announced that he had received a long and beautiful otherworldly message from Wilde. He allegedly asked to convey that he did not die, but lives and will live in the hearts of those who are able to feel "the beauty of forms and sounds poured into nature." At the end of 2007, after a special survey of TV viewers by the BBC Corporation, Oscar Wilde was recognized as the wittiest man in Great Britain. He bypassed Shakespeare himself and W. Churchill. [/ Collapse]