The Master and Margarita

The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Afanasevich Bulgakov

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Mikhail Afanasevich Bulgakov

A book by Mikhail Afanasevich Bulgakov

BULGAKOV, MIKHAIL AFANASIEVICH (1891-1940) , Russian writer. Born May 3 (15), 1891 in Kiev in the family of a professor at the Kiev Theological Academy. Family traditions were transmitted by Bulgakov in the novel "The White Guard" (1924) to the structure of the Turbins` house. In 1909, after graduating from the first gymnasium in Kiev, Bulgakov entered the medical faculty of Kiev University. In 1916, having received a diploma, he worked as a doctor in the village of Nikolskoye, Smolensk province, then in the city of Vyazma. The impressions of those years formed the basis of the cycle of stories "Notes of a Young Doctor" (1925-1926). Literary critic M.

Chudakova wrote about this period of Bulgakov`s life: “In these one and a half years he saw his people face to face, and, perhaps, it was the look of a doctor who knows that without elementary education and at least primitive hygienic standards, one cannot jump into a new bright peace, strengthened Bulgakov`s confidence in the disastrous for Russia of the soon to come revolutionary upheavals.

" While still a student, Bulgakov began to write prose - apparently, mainly related to medical topics, and then zemstvo medical practice. According to his sister`s recollections, in 1912 he showed her a story about delirium tremens. After the October Revolution of 1917, Bulgakov, together with his wife T.

Lappa, returned from Vyazma to Kiev. The bloody events, which he witnessed when the city passed to the red, then to the white, then to the Petliurites, formed the basis of some of his works (the story "I Killed", 1926, etc., the novel "The White Guard"). When the White Volunteer Army entered Kiev in 1919, Bulgakov was mobilized and left for the North Caucasus as a military doctor. While fulfilling his medical duties, Bulgakov continued to write. In his Autobiography (1924), he said: “One night, in 1919, in the middle of autumn, he wrote the first little story. In the city to which the train dragged me, he took the story to the editorial office of the newspaper. It was printed there. Then they published several feuilletons.

" Bulgakov`s first feuilleton "Future Prospects", published with the initials of M.B. in the newspaper "Grozny" in 1919, gave a tough and clear picture of both the contemporary writer of the socio-political and economic situation in Russia ("it is such that you want to close your eyes") and the future of the country. Bulgakov foresaw the inevitable retribution by war and poverty "for the madness of the October days, for the independence of traitors, for the corruption of the workers, for Brest, for the insane use of machines for printing money ...

for everything!" Neither in those days, nor ever afterwards did the writer harbor illusions about the "cleansing power" of the revolution, seeing in it only the embodiment of social evil. Having fallen ill with typhus, Bulgakov could not leave Vladikavkaz together with the Volunteer Army. An attempt to get out of Soviet Russia by sea, through Batum, was also unsuccessful. For some time he remained in Vladikavkaz, earning a living with theater reviews and plays written by order of the local theater (which he later destroyed). In 1921 Bulgakov arrived in Moscow. He began collaborating with several newspapers and magazines as a feuilletonist. He published works of various genres in the newspaper "Nakanune", which was published in Berlin. In the newspaper "Gudok" Bulgakov collaborated with a whole galaxy of writers - I.

Babel, I.

Ilf and E.

Petrov, V.

Kataev, Yu.

Olesha. The impressions of this period were used by Bulgakov in the story "Notes on Cuffs" (1923), which was not published during the writer`s lifetime. The protagonist of the story is a man who, like Bulgakov, came to Moscow to start life from scratch. The need to write a mediocre play in order to "fit" into a new life oppresses the hero, he feels his connection with the old culture, which for him is embodied in Pushkin. A kind of continuation of "Notes on Cuffs" was the story "The Devil`s Day" (1925). Its main character, the "little man" Korotkov, found himself in the thick of the phantasmagoric life of Moscow in the 1920s and became its chronicler. In Moscow, the action of other stories by Bulgakov, written during these years, takes place - "Fatal Eggs" (1925) and "Heart of a Dog" (1925, published in 1968 in Great Britain). In 1925 Bulgakov published in the magazine "Russia" the novel "White Guard" (incomplete version), on which he began working in Vladikavkaz. The tragedy of the civil war, played out in the native writer Kiev (in the novel - the City), is shown as a tragedy not only of the people as a whole, but also of the "separate" family of intellectuals Turbins and their close friends. Bulgakov spoke with piercing love about the atmosphere of a cozy house in which "painted tiles are glowing with heat" and people who love each other live. The heroes of the novel, Russian officers, fully possess a sense of honor and dignity. In the year of publication of the novel, Bulgakov began work on a play, plot and thematically related to the "White Guard" and later called "Days of the Turbins" (1926). The process of its creation is described by the author in The Theatrical Novel (Notes of a Dead Man, 1937). The play, which Bulgakov revised several times, was not a staging of a novel, but an independent dramatic work. The play "Days of the Turbins", which premiered in 1926 at the Moscow Art Theater, was a huge success with the audience, despite the attacks of semi-official critics who accused the author of "winking with the remnants of the White Guard" and saw in the play "a mockery of a Russian chauvinist Ukrainians ". The performance has withstood 987 performances. In 1929-1932 his show was banned. Soon after Days of the Turbins, Bulgakov wrote two satirical plays about Soviet life in the 1920s - Zoykina`s Apartment (1926, staged on the Moscow stage for two years), Crimson Island (1927, removed from the repertoire after several performances) - and the drama about the Civil War and the first emigration "Running" (1928, banned from production shortly before the premiere). In the late 1920s, Bulgakov was harshly attacked by official criticism. His prose works were not published, his plays were removed from the repertoire. In the early 1930s on the stage of the Moscow Art Theater was only his performance of "Dead Souls" by Gogol; the play about Moliere "The Cabal of the Sanctifier" (1930-1936) was shown for some time in a version "corrected" by the censorship, and then it was also banned. In March 1930, Bulgakov turned to Stalin and the Soviet government with a letter in which he asked either to be given the opportunity to leave the USSR or to be allowed to earn a living in the theater. A month later, Stalin called Bulgakov and allowed him to work, after which the writer was promoted to assistant director at the Moscow Art Theater. The permission to work, given to Bulgakov, turned out to be Stalin`s favorite cunning move: the writer`s works were still banned from publication. In 1936 Bulgakov earned money by translating and writing a libretto for the Bolshoi Theater, and also played in some performances of the Moscow Art Theater. At this time, Bulgakov was writing a novel, which had begun back in 1929.

The original version (according to the writer`s own definition, "a novel about the devil") was destroyed by Bulgakov in 1930.

In 1934, the first complete edition of the text was created, which in 1937 was named "The Master and Margarita" ... At this time Bulgakov was already terminally ill; he dictated some chapters of the novel to his wife E.S. Bulgakova. Work on the novel was completed in February 1940, a month before the writer`s death. Over the years of work on The Master and Margarita, the author`s concept has changed significantly - from a satirical novel to a philosophical work in which the satirical line is only a component of a complex compositional whole. The text is full of many associations - first of all, with Goethe`s Faust, from which the epigraph to the novel and the name of Satan - Woland - are taken. The Gospel stories are artistically transformed by Bulgakov in the chapters representing a "novel in a novel" - a work of the Master about Pontius Pilate and Yeshua Ha-Nozri. Realizing the unacceptability of "The Master and Margarita" in the framework of Soviet ideology, Bulgakov nevertheless tried to promote the publication of the novel. To this end, in 1938 he wrote the play "Batum", the central figure of which was the young Stalin. The play was banned; the publication of the novel during the life of the author did not take place. It was only in 1966 that Bulgakov`s widow, with the assistance of K.

Simonov, managed to publish the novel in the Moscow magazine. The publication became the most important cultural event of the 1960s. According to the memoirs of critics P.

Weil and A.

Genis, "this book was immediately perceived as a revelation, which contains in encrypted form all the answers to the fatal questions of the Russian intelligentsia." Many phrases from the novel ("The manuscripts do not burn"; "The housing problem only spoiled them", etc.) passed into the category of phraseological units. In 1977 Yu.

Lyubimov staged a performance of the same name based on "The Master and Margarita" at the Taganka Theater. Bulgakov died in Moscow on March 10, 1940.

The Master and Margarita PDF

BULGAKOV, MIKHAIL AFANASIEVICH (1891-1940) , Russian writer. Born May 3 (15), 1891 in Kiev in the family of a professor at the Kiev Theological Academy. Family traditions were transmitted by Bulgakov in the novel "The White Guard" (1924) to the structure of the Turbins` house. In 1909, after graduating from the first gymnasium in Kiev, Bulgakov entered the medical faculty of Kiev University. In 1916, having received a diploma, he worked as a doctor in the village of Nikolskoye, Smolensk province, then in the city of Vyazma. The impressions of those years formed the basis of the cycle of stories "Notes of a Young Doctor" (1925-1926). Literary critic M. Chudakova wrote about this period of Bulgakov`s life: “In these one and a half years he saw his people face to face, and, perhaps, it was the look of a doctor who knows that without elementary education and at least primitive hygienic standards, one cannot jump into a new bright peace, strengthened Bulgakov`s confidence in the disastrous for Russia of the soon to come revolutionary upheavals. " While still a student, Bulgakov began to write prose - apparently, mainly related to medical topics, and then zemstvo medical practice. According to his sister`s recollections, in 1912 he showed her a story about delirium tremens. After the October Revolution of 1917, Bulgakov, together with his wife T. Lappa, returned from Vyazma to Kiev. The bloody events, which he witnessed when the city passed to the red, then to the white, then to the Petliurites, formed the basis of some of his works (the story "I Killed", 1926, etc., the novel "The White Guard"). When the White Volunteer Army entered Kiev in 1919, Bulgakov was mobilized and left for the North Caucasus as a military doctor. While fulfilling his medical duties, Bulgakov continued to write. In his Autobiography (1924), he said: “One night, in 1919, in the middle of autumn, he wrote the first little story. In the city to which the train dragged me, he took the story to the editorial office of the newspaper. It was printed there. Then they published several feuilletons. " Bulgakov`s first feuilleton "Future Prospects", published with the initials of M.B. in the newspaper "Grozny" in 1919, gave a tough and clear picture of both the contemporary writer of the socio-political and economic situation in Russia ("it is such that you want to close your eyes") and the future of the country. Bulgakov foresaw the inevitable retribution by war and poverty "for the madness of the October days, for the independence of traitors, for the corruption of the workers, for Brest, for the insane use of machines for printing money ... for everything!" Neither in those days, nor ever afterwards did the writer harbor illusions about the "cleansing power" of the revolution, seeing in it only the embodiment of social evil. Having fallen ill with typhus, Bulgakov could not leave Vladikavkaz together with the Volunteer Army. An attempt to get out of Soviet Russia by sea, through Batum, was also unsuccessful. For some time he remained in Vladikavkaz, earning a living with theater reviews and plays written by order of the local theater (which he later destroyed). In 1921 Bulgakov arrived in Moscow. He began collaborating with several newspapers and magazines as a feuilletonist. He published works of various genres in the newspaper "Nakanune", which was published in Berlin. In the newspaper "Gudok" Bulgakov collaborated with a whole galaxy of writers - I. Babel, I. Ilf and E. Petrov, V. Kataev, Yu. Olesha. The impressions of this period were used by Bulgakov in the story "Notes on Cuffs" (1923), which was not published during the writer`s lifetime. The protagonist of the story is a man who, like Bulgakov, came to Moscow to start life from scratch. The need to write a mediocre play in order to "fit" into a new life oppresses the hero, he feels his connection with the old culture, which for him is embodied in Pushkin. A kind of continuation of "Notes on Cuffs" was the story "The Devil`s Day" (1925). Its main character, the "little man" Korotkov, found himself in the thick of the phantasmagoric life of Moscow in the 1920s and became its chronicler. In Moscow, the action of other stories by Bulgakov, written during these years, takes place - "Fatal Eggs" (1925) and "Heart of a Dog" (1925, published in 1968 in Great Britain). In 1925 Bulgakov published in the magazine "Russia" the novel "White Guard" (incomplete version), on which he began working in Vladikavkaz. The tragedy of the civil war, played out in the native writer Kiev (in the novel - the City), is shown as a tragedy not only of the people as a whole, but also of the "separate" family of intellectuals Turbins and their close friends. Bulgakov spoke with piercing love about the atmosphere of a cozy house in which "painted tiles are glowing with heat" and people who love each other live. The heroes of the novel, Russian officers, fully possess a sense of honor and dignity. In the year of publication of the novel, Bulgakov began work on a play, plot and thematically related to the "White Guard" and later called "Days of the Turbins" (1926). The process of its creation is described by the author in The Theatrical Novel (Notes of a Dead Man, 1937). The play, which Bulgakov revised several times, was not a staging of a novel, but an independent dramatic work. The play "Days of the Turbins", which premiered in 1926 at the Moscow Art Theater, was a huge success with the audience, despite the attacks of semi-official critics who accused the author of "winking with the remnants of the White Guard" and saw in the play "a mockery of a Russian chauvinist Ukrainians ". The performance has withstood 987 performances. In 1929-1932 his show was banned. Soon after Days of the Turbins, Bulgakov wrote two satirical plays about Soviet life in the 1920s - Zoykina`s Apartment (1926, staged on the Moscow stage for two years), Crimson Island (1927, removed from the repertoire after several performances) - and the drama about the Civil War and the first emigration "Running" (1928, banned from production shortly before the premiere). In the late 1920s, Bulgakov was harshly attacked by official criticism. His prose works were not published, his plays were removed from the repertoire. In the early 1930s on the stage of the Moscow Art Theater was only his performance of "Dead Souls" by Gogol; the play about Moliere "The Cabal of the Sanctifier" (1930-1936) was shown for some time in a version "corrected" by the censorship, and then it was also banned. In March 1930, Bulgakov turned to Stalin and the Soviet government with a letter in which he asked either to be given the opportunity to leave the USSR or to be allowed to earn a living in the theater. A month later, Stalin called Bulgakov and allowed him to work, after which the writer was promoted to assistant director at the Moscow Art Theater. The permission to work, given to Bulgakov, turned out to be Stalin`s favorite cunning move: the writer`s works were still banned from publication. In 1936 Bulgakov earned money by translating and writing a libretto for the Bolshoi Theater, and also played in some performances of the Moscow Art Theater. At this time, Bulgakov was writing a novel, which had begun back in 1929. The original version (according to the writer`s own definition, "a novel about the devil") was destroyed by Bulgakov in 1930. In 1934, the first complete edition of the text was created, which in 1937 was named "The Master and Margarita" ... At this time Bulgakov was already terminally ill; he dictated some chapters of the novel to his wife E.S. Bulgakova. Work on the novel was completed in February 1940, a month before the writer`s death. Over the years of work on The Master and Margarita, the author`s concept has changed significantly - from a satirical novel to a philosophical work in which the satirical line is only a component of a complex compositional whole. The text is full of many associations - first of all, with Goethe`s Faust, from which the epigraph to the novel and the name of Satan - Woland - are taken. The Gospel stories are artistically transformed by Bulgakov in the chapters representing a "novel in a novel" - a work of the Master about Pontius Pilate and Yeshua Ha-Nozri. Realizing the unacceptability of "The Master and Margarita" in the framework of Soviet ideology, Bulgakov nevertheless tried to promote the publication of the novel. To this end, in 1938 he wrote the play "Batum", the central figure of which was the young Stalin. The play was banned; the publication of the novel during the life of the author did not take place. It was only in 1966 that Bulgakov`s widow, with the assistance of K. Simonov, managed to publish the novel in the Moscow magazine. The publication became the most important cultural event of the 1960s. According to the memoirs of critics P. Weil and A. Genis, "this book was immediately perceived as a revelation, which contains in encrypted form all the answers to the fatal questions of the Russian intelligentsia." Many phrases from the novel ("The manuscripts do not burn"; "The housing problem only spoiled them", etc.) passed into the category of phraseological units. In 1977 Yu. Lyubimov staged a performance of the same name based on "The Master and Margarita" at the Taganka Theater. Bulgakov died in Moscow on March 10, 1940.