Notes from Underground

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Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (10/30/1821 - 01/28/1881) is a great Russian writer. Was born in Moscow. Father, Mikhail Andreevich (1789-1839), was a doctor (head physician) at the Moscow Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor, in 1828 he was promoted to a hereditary nobleman. In 1831 he acquired the village of Darovoe in the Kashirsky district of the Tula province, in 1833 the neighboring village of Chermoshnya. In raising his children, his father was an independent, educated, caring family man, but he had a quick-tempered and suspicious character. After the death of his wife in 1837, he retired and settled in Darovoe. According to the documents, he died of apoplectic stroke; according to the recollections of relatives and oral legends, he was killed by his peasants. Mother, Maria Fedorovna (née Nechaeva; 1800-1837). The Dostoevsky family had six more children: Mikhail, Varvara (1822-1893), Andrei, Vera (1829-1896), Nikolai (1831-1883), Alexandra (1835-1889). In 1833, Dostoevsky was given to NI Drashusov`s half-board; he and brother Mikhail went there "every morning and returned to dinner." From the fall of 1834 to the spring of 1837 Dostoevsky attended the private boarding school of L.I.Chermak, in which the astronomer D.M.Perevoshchikov and the paleologist A.M.

Kubarev taught. The teacher of the Russian language N.I.Bilevich played a certain role in the spiritual development of Dostoevsky. Memories of the boarding house served as material for many of the writer`s works. Hardly enduring the death of his mother, which coincided with the news of the death of A.S. Pushkin (which he perceived as a personal loss), Dostoevsky in May 1837 went with his brother Mikhail to St.

Petersburg and entered the preparatory boarding school of KF Kostomarov. At the same time, he met I.N.Shidlovsky, whose religious and romantic mood captivated Dostoevsky. Since January 1838, Dostoevsky studied at the Main Engineering School, describing his usual day as follows: "...

from early morning to evening, we barely have time to follow the lectures in the classrooms.

...

We are sent to the frunt training, we are given lessons in fencing, dancing , singing ...

they put on guard, and all the time goes by in this ...

". The heavy impression of the "convict years" of the doctrine was partially brightened up by friendly relations with V.

Grigorovich, the doctor A.

E.

Rizenkampf, the officer on duty A.

I.

Saveliev, the artist K.

A.

Trutovsky. Even on the way to St.

Petersburg, Dostoevsky mentally "composed a novel from Venetian life," and in 1838 told Riesenkampf "about his own literary experiences." A literary circle was formed in the school around Dostoevsky. On February 16, 1841, at an evening hosted by brother Mikhail on the occasion of his departure to Revel, Dostoevsky read excerpts from two of his dramatic works - "Mary Stuart" and "Boris Godunov". Dostoevsky informed his brother about the work on the drama "Zhid Yankel" in January 1844.

The manuscripts of the dramas have not survived, but already from their names the literary hobbies of the novice writer emerge: Schiller, Pushkin, Gogol. After the death of his father, the relatives of the writer`s mother took care of Dostoevsky`s younger brothers and sisters, and Fyodor and Mikhail received a small inheritance. After graduating from college (late 1843), he was enrolled as a field engineer-second lieutenant in the Petersburg engineering team, but already at the beginning of the summer of 1844, having decided to devote himself entirely to literature, he resigned and resigned with the rank of lieutenant. In January 1844, Dostoevsky completed the translation of Balzac`s story Eugene Grande, whom he was particularly fond of at that time. The translation was Dostoevsky`s first published literary work. In 1844 he began and in May 1845, after numerous alterations, he finished the novel Poor People. The novel Poor People, whose connection with Pushkin`s Stationmaster and Gogol`s Overcoat was emphasized by Dostoevsky himself, was an exceptional success. Based on the traditions of a physiological sketch, Dostoevsky creates a realistic picture of the life of the "downtrodden" inhabitants of the "Petersburg corners", a gallery of social types from the street beggar to "his excellency." Summer 1845 (like the next) Dostoevsky spent in Revel with his brother Mikhail. In the fall of 1845, upon his return to St.

Petersburg, he often met with Belinsky. In October, the writer, together with Nekrasov and Grigorovich, compiles an anonymous program announcement for the almanac "Zuboskal" (03, 1845, No.

11), and in early December, at an evening at Belinsky`s, reads the chapters of "The Double" (03, 1846, No.

2), in which for the first time gives a psychological analysis of the split consciousness, "duality". The story "Mr.

Prokharchin" (1846) and the story "The Hostess" (1847), in which many motives, ideas and characters of Dostoevsky`s works of the 1860-1870s were sketched, were not understood by modern criticism. Belinsky also radically changed his attitude towards Dostoevsky, condemning the "fantastic" element, "pretentiousness", "mannerism" of these works. In other works of the young Dostoevsky - in the stories "Weak Heart", "White Nights", the cycle of acute socio-psychological feuilletons "The Petersburg Chronicle" and the unfinished novel "Netochka Nezvanova" - the problems of the writer`s work are expanded, psychologism is enhanced with a characteristic emphasis on the analysis of the most difficult elusive internal phenomena. At the end of 1846, there was a cooling in the relationship between Dostoevsky and Belinsky. Later, he also had a conflict with the editors of Sovremennik: Dostoevsky`s suspicious, arrogant character played an important role here. Mockery of the writer by recent friends (especially Turgenev, Nekrasov), the harsh tone of Belinsky`s critical reviews about his works were acutely felt by the writer. At about this time, according to the testimony of Dr.

S.D. Yanovsky, Dostoevsky developed the first symptoms of epilepsy. The writer is burdened by exhausting work for Otechestvennye zapiski. Poverty forced him to take on any literary work (in particular, he edited articles for the "Reference Encyclopedic Dictionary" by A.

V.

Starchevsky). In 1846, Dostoevsky became close to the Maikov family, regularly attends the literary and philosophical circle of the Beketov brothers, in which V.

Maikov headed, and A.N. Maikov and A.N. Pleshcheev are Dostoevsky`s friends. From March to April 1847 Dostoevsky became a visitor to MV Butashevich-Petrashevsky`s "Fridays". He also participates in the organization of a secret printing house for printing appeals to the peasants and soldiers. Dostoevsky`s arrest took place on April 23, 1849; when arrested, his archive was confiscated and, probably, destroyed in Section III. Dostoevsky spent 8 months in the Alekseevsky Ravelin of the Peter and Paul Fortress under investigation, during which he showed courage, hiding many facts and trying to mitigate the guilt of his comrades as much as possible. He was recognized by the investigation as "one of the most important" among the Petrashevites, guilty of "intent to overthrow the existing domestic laws and state order." The initial verdict of the military court commission read: "...

a retired engineer-lieutenant Dostoevsky, for failure to report on the dissemination of a criminal letter about religion and government by the writer Belinsky and the malicious essay of Lieutenant Grigoriev, to deprive ranks, all rights of the state and subject to the death penalty by shooting." On December 22, 1849, Dostoevsky, along with others, awaited execution of the death sentence on the Semyonovsky parade ground. By the resolution of Nicholas I, the execution was replaced by a 4-year hard labor with the deprivation of "all rights of the state" and subsequent surrender to the soldiers. On the night of December 24, Dostoevsky was sent in chains from Petersburg. On January 10, 1850, he arrived in Tobolsk, where the writer met with the wives of the Decembrists - P.E. Annenkova, A.G. Muravyova and N.D. Fonvizina; they gave him the gospel, which he kept all his life. From January 1850 to 1854 Dostoevsky, together with Durov, served hard labor as a "laborer" in the Omsk fortress. In January 1854 he was enlisted as a private in the 7th Line Battalion (Semipalatinsk) and was able to renew his correspondence with his brother Mikhail and A.

Maikov. In November 1855, Dostoevsky was promoted to non-commissioned officer, and after long troubles of the prosecutor Wrangel and other Siberian and Petersburg acquaintances (including E.I.

Totleben) - to ensign; in the spring of 1857, the hereditary nobility and the right to publish were returned to the writer, but police supervision over him remained until 1875.

In 1857, Dostoevsky married the widowed M.D. Isaeva, who, in his words, was "a woman of the most sublime and enthusiastic soul ...

The idealist was in the full sense of the word ...

both pure and naive, moreover, she was just like a child." The marriage was not happy: Isaeva agreed after long hesitations that tormented Dostoevsky. In Siberia, the writer began work on memories of hard labor (the "Siberian" notebook containing folklore, ethnographic and diary entries served as a source for "Notes from the Dead House" and many other books by Dostoevsky). In 1857, his brother published the story "Little Hero", written by Dostoevsky in the Peter and Paul Fortress. Having created two "provincial" comic stories - "Uncle`s Dream" and "The Village of Stepanchikovo and Its Inhabitants", Dostoevsky entered into negotiations with M.N. Katkov, Nekrasov, A.A. Kraevsky. However, modern criticism did not appreciate and passed over in almost complete silence these first works of the "new" Dostoevsky. On March 18, 1859, Dostoevsky was dismissed "due to illness" to retire with the rank of second lieutenant, and received permission to live in Tver (with the prohibition of entry into the Petersburg and Moscow provinces). On July 2, 1859, he left Semipalatinsk with his wife and stepson. From 1859 - in Tver, where he renewed his previous literary acquaintances and made new ones. Later, the chief of the gendarmes notified the Tver governor of Dostoevsky`s permission to live in Petersburg, where he arrived in December 1859. Dostoevsky`s intensive activity combined editorial work on "other people`s" manuscripts with the publication of his own articles, polemical notes, notes, and most importantly, works of art. The novel "The Humiliated and the Offended" is a transitional work, a kind of return to a new stage of development to the motives of the art of the 1840s, enriched by the experience of what was experienced and felt in the 1850s; it has very strong autobiographical motives. At the same time, the novel contained the features of the plots, style and heroes of the works of the late Dostoevsky. "Notes from the House of the Dead" had a huge success. In Siberia, according to Dostoevsky, "gradually and after a very, very long time," his "convictions" have changed. The essence of these changes, Dostoevsky formulated in the most general form as "a return to the national root, to the recognition of the Russian soul, to the recognition of the spirit of the people." In the journals Vremya and Epoha, the Dostoevsky brothers appeared as the ideologists of "soil" - a specific modification of the ideas of Slavophilism. "Soilism" was rather an attempt to outline the contours of a "general idea", to find a platform that would reconcile Westernizers and Slavophiles, "civilization" and the popular principle. Skeptical about the revolutionary ways of transforming Russia and Europe, Dostoevsky expressed these doubts in works of art, articles and announcements of Vremya, in sharp polemics with the publications of Sovremennik. The essence of Dostoevsky`s objections is the possibility, after the reform, of rapprochement between the government and the intelligentsia with the people, their peaceful cooperation. Dostoevsky continues this polemic in the story "Notes from the Underground" ("Epoch", 1864) - a philosophical and artistic prelude to the "ideological" novels of the writer. Dostoevsky wrote: “I am proud that for the first time I brought out the real man of the Russian majority and for the first time exposed his ugly and tragic side.

Tragedy consists in the consciousness of ugliness.

I alone brought out the tragedy of the underground, consisting in suffering, in self-punishment, in the consciousness of the best and in the impossibility of achieving his and, most importantly, in the vivid conviction of these unfortunates that everyone is like that, and therefore, it is not worth correcting! " In June 1862 Dostoevsky went abroad for the first time; visited Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, England. In August 1863 the writer went abroad for the second time. In Paris, he met with A.P. Suslova, whose dramatic relationship with whom (1861-1866) was reflected in the novel The Gambler, The Idiot and other works. In Baden-Baden, carried away, by the recklessness of his nature, playing roulette, "all, completely to the ground" is played; this long-term passion for Dostoevsky is one of the qualities of his passionate nature. In October 1863 he returned to Russia. Until mid-November he lived with his sick wife in Vladimir, and at the end of 1863 - April 1864 - in Moscow, visiting St.

Petersburg on business. 1864 brought heavy losses to Dostoevsky. On April 15, his wife died of consumption. The personality of Maria Dmitrievna, as well as the circumstances of their "unhappy" love, were reflected in many works of Dostoevsky (in particular, in the images of Katerina Ivanovna - "Crime and Punishment" and Nastasya Filippovna - "The Idiot"). On June 10, M.M.

died. Dostoevsky. On September 26, Dostoevsky is present at the funeral of Grigoriev. After the death of his brother, Dostoevsky took upon himself the publication of the Epoch magazine, burdened with a great debt and lagging behind by 3 months; the magazine began to appear more regularly, but a sharp drop in subscriptions in 1865 forced the writer to stop publishing. He remained indebted to creditors about 15 thousand rubles, which he was able to pay only by the end of his life. In an effort to provide conditions for work, Dostoevsky signed a contract with F.T. Stellovsky to publish his collected works and undertook to write a new novel for him by November 1, 1866.

In the spring of 1865, Dostoevsky was a frequent guest of the family of General V.V.

Korvin-Krukovsky, whose eldest daughter A.V.

Korvin-Krukovskaya he was greatly attracted by. In July, he left for Wiesbaden, from where in the fall of 1865 he offered Katkov a story for the Russian Bulletin, which later grew into a novel. In the summer of 1866, Dostoevsky was in Moscow and at his dacha in the village of Lyublino, near the family of his sister Vera Mikhailovna, where at night he wrote the novel Crime and Punishment. "The psychological account of one crime" became the plot line of the novel, the main idea of ​​which Dostoevsky outlined as follows: "Unsolvable questions arise before the murderer, unsuspected and unexpected feelings torment his heart.

God`s truth, the earthly law takes its toll, and he ends up being forced I am compelled to die in hard labor, but to join the people again ...

". Petersburg and "current reality", a wealth of social characters, "a whole world of estate and professional types" are accurately and multifacetedly depicted in the novel, but this is a reality transformed and discovered by the artist, whose gaze penetrates to the very essence of things. Intense philosophical disputes, prophetic dreams, confessions and nightmares, grotesque caricature scenes that naturally turn into tragic, symbolic meetings of heroes, the apocalyptic image of a ghost town are organically linked in Dostoevsky`s novel. The novel, in the words of the author himself, was "extremely successful" and raised his "reputation as a writer." In 1866, the expiring contract with the publisher forced Dostoevsky to work simultaneously on two novels - Crime and Punishment and The Gambler. Dostoevsky resorts to an unusual way of working: on October 4, 1866, the stenographer A.G. Snitkin; he began to dictate to her the novel The Gambler, which reflected the writer`s impressions of his acquaintance with Western Europe. At the center of the novel is the clash of the "multi-developed, but unfinished in everything, distrustful and not daring not to believe, rebelling against authorities and fearing them" "foreign Russian" with "complete" European types. The main character is "a poet of his own kind, but the fact is that he himself is ashamed of this poetry, for he deeply feels its baseness, although the need for risk ennobles it in his own eyes." In the winter of 1867, Snitkina becomes the wife of Dostoevsky. The new marriage was more successful. From April 1867 to July 1871 Dostoevsky and his wife lived abroad (Berlin, Dresden, Baden-Baden, Geneva, Milan, Florence). There, on February 22, 1868, daughter Sophia was born, whose sudden death (May of the same year) Dostoevsky was very upset. Daughter Love was born on September 14, 1869; later in Russia on July 16, 1871 - son Fedor; 12 Aug 1875 - son Alexei, who died at the age of three from an epileptic seizure. In 1867-1868, Dostoevsky worked on the novel The Idiot. "The idea of ​​the novel," the author pointed out, "is my old and beloved, but so difficult that I did not dare to take on it for a long time.

The main idea of ​​the novel is to portray a positively beautiful person.

There is nothing more difficult in the world, and especially now ...

Dostoevsky began to work on the novel The Demons, interrupting work on the widely conceived epics Atheism and The Life of the Great Sinner, and hastily composing the "Eternal Husband" "storyline." The immediate impetus for the creation of the novel was the "nechaev`s affair". The activities of the secret society "People`s Massacre", the murder by five members of the organization of the student of the Petrovskaya Agricultural Academy I.I. Ivanova - these are the events that formed the basis of "Demons" and received a philosophical and psychological interpretation in the novel. The writer`s attention was drawn to the circumstances of the murder, the ideological and organizational principles of the terrorists ("Catechism of a Revolutionary"), the figures of accomplices in the crime, the personality of the head of society S.G. Nechaev. In the process of working on the novel, the concept was modified many times. Initially, it is a direct response to events. The scope of the pamphlet later expanded significantly, not only nechaevites, but also figures of the 1860s, liberals of the 1840s, T.N. Granovsky, Petrashevtsy, Belinsky, V.S. Pecherin, A.I. Herzen, even the Decembrists and P.Ya. Chaadaev falls into the grotesque-tragic space of the novel. Gradually, the novel develops into a critical depiction of a common "illness" experienced by Russia and Europe, a striking symptom of which is the "devilry" of Nechaev and the Nechaevites. In the center of the novel, in its philosophical and ideological focus, is placed not the sinister "swindler" Pyotr Verkhovensky (Nechaev), but the mysterious and demonic figure of Nikolai Stavrogin, who "allowed himself everything." In July 1871 Dostoevsky returned to St.

Petersburg with his wife and daughter. The writer spent the summer of 1872 with his family in Staraya Russa; this city has become a permanent summer residence for the family. In 1876 Dostoevsky bought a house here. In 1872 the writer visited the "milieu" of Prince VP Meshchersky, a supporter of counterreforms and publisher of the newspaper-magazine "Citizen". At the request of the publisher, supported by A.

Maikov and Tyutchev, Dostoevsky in December 1872 agreed to take over the editorial staff of "Grazhdanin", having stipulated in advance that he was taking on these duties temporarily. In "Citizen" (1873) Dostoevsky realized the long-conceived idea of ​​a "Writer`s Diary" (a cycle of essays of a political, literary and memoir nature, united by the idea of ​​direct, personal communication with the reader), published a number of articles and notes (including political reviews "Foreign Events "). Soon Dostoevsky began to feel weary about the ed. work, the clashes with Meshchersky became more and more sharp, the impossibility of turning the weekly into an "organ of people with independent convictions" became more obvious. In the spring of 1874, the writer gave up editing, although he occasionally collaborated in "Citizen" and later. In connection with the deterioration of health (increased emphysema of the lungs) in June 1847 he left for treatment in Ems and repeated trips there in 1875, 1876 and 1879.

In the mid-1870s. Dostoevsky`s relations with Saltykov-Shchedrin were resumed, which had been interrupted in the midst of the polemic between Epoch and Sovremennik, and with Nekrasov, at whose suggestion (1874) the writer published his new novel Teenager, a novel of education, in Otechestvennye zapiski.

a kind of "Fathers and Sons" of Dostoevsky. The personality and worldview of the hero are formed in an atmosphere of "general decay" and disintegration of the foundations of society, in the struggle against the temptations of the century. The adolescent`s confession analyzes the complex, contradictory, chaotic process of personality formation in the "ugly" world that has lost its "moral center", the slow maturation of a new "idea" under the powerful influence of the "great thought" of the wanderer Versilov and the philosophy of life of the "noble" wanderer Makar Dolgoruky. At the end of 1875, Dostoevsky again returned to publicistic work - the "mono-journal" "Diary of a Writer" (1876 and 1877), which had great success and allowed the writer to enter into direct dialogue with correspondent readers. The author defined the nature of the publication as follows: "A Writer`s Diary" will look like a feuilleton, but with the difference that a feuilleton in a month cannot naturally resemble a feuilleton in a week. I am not a chronicler: on the contrary, this is a perfect diary in the full sense of the word, that is, a report on what interested me most personally.

"" Diary "1876-1877 - a fusion of journalistic articles, essays, feuilletons," anti-critic ", memoirs and fiction The "Diary" refracted the immediate, hot pursuit, impressions and opinions of Dostoevsky about the most important phenomena of European and Russian socio-political and cultural life, which worried Dostoevsky`s legal, social, ethical-pedagogical, aesthetic and political problems.

“The writer`s attempts to see in the modern chaos the contours of the“ new creation ”, the foundations of the“ emerging ”life, to predict the appearance of“ the coming future Russia of honest people who need only one truth.

”Criticism of bourgeois Europe, a deep analysis of the state of post-reform Russia are paradoxically combined in Diary "with polemics against various currents of social thought of the 1870s., From conservative utopias s - to populist and socialist ideas. In the last years of his life, Dostoevsky`s popularity increased. In 1877 he was elected a corresponding member of the St.

Petersburg Academy of Sciences. In May 1879, the writer was invited to the International Literary Congress in London, at the session of which he was elected a member of the honorary committee of the International Literary Association. Dostoevsky takes an active part in the activities of the St.

Petersburg Frebel Society. He often speaks at literary and musical evenings and matinees with reading excerpts from his works and Pushkin`s poems. In January 1877 Dostoevsky, impressed by Nekrasov`s "Last Songs," visits the dying poet, often sees him in November; On December 30, he makes a speech at the funeral of Nekrasov. Dostoevsky`s activity required a direct acquaintance with "living life". He visits (with the assistance of A.F.Kony) the juvenile delinquents` colony (1875) and the Foundling Home (1876). In 1878, after the death of his beloved son Alyosha, he made a trip to Optina Pustyn, where he talked with Elder Ambrose. The writer is especially worried about the events in Russia. In March 1878, Dostoevsky is at the trial of Vera Zasulich in the hall of the St.

Petersburg District Court, and in April he replies to a letter from students asking them to speak out about the beating of a student demonstration by shopkeepers; In February 1880 he attended the execution of I.O.

Mlodetsky, who shot at M.T.Loris-Melikov. Intensive, diverse contacts with the surrounding reality, active journalistic and social activities served as a multilateral preparation for a new stage in the writer`s work. In the "Diary of a Writer" the ideas and plot of his latest novel matured and tested. At the end of 1877, Dostoevsky announced the termination of the "Diary" in connection with the intention to take up "one artistic work that had developed ...

during these two years of publication of the" Diary "inconspicuously and involuntarily." The Brothers Karamazov is the final work of the writer, in which the artistic embodiment received many ideas of his work.

The history of the Karamazovs, as the author wrote, is not just a family chronicle, but a typified and generalized "image of our modern reality, our modern intellectual Russia." Philosophy and psychology of "crime and punishment", the dilemma "of socialism and Christianity ", the eternal struggle of" God "and" devil "in the souls of people, the traditional for classical Russian literature theme of" fathers and children "- this is the problematic of the novel.

In" The Brothers Karamazov "the criminal offense is connected with the great world" questions "and eternal artistic and philosophical In January 1881, Dostoevsky speaks at a meeting of the Council of the Slavic Charitable Society, works on the first issue of the renewed "Diary of a Writer", learns the role of the schema-monk in "The Death of Ivan the Terrible" by A.

K.

Tolstoy for a home performance in the salon of S.

A.

Tolstoy, decides to "certainly participate in the Pushkin evening" on January 29 He was going to "publish" The Diary of a Writer "...

for two years, and then dreamed of writing the second part of" The Brothers Karamazov ", where almost all the former heroes would appear ...". On the night of January 25-26, Dostoevsky`s throat began to bleed. In the afternoon of January 28, Dostoevsky said goodbye to the children, at 8:38 am. in the evening he passed away. The funeral of the writer took place on January 31, 1881 with a huge crowd of people. He is buried in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra in St.

Petersburg. Source: http://www.dostoevskiy.net.ru

Notes from Underground PDF

Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (10/30/1821 - 01/28/1881) is a great Russian writer. Was born in Moscow. Father, Mikhail Andreevich (1789-1839), was a doctor (head physician) at the Moscow Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor, in 1828 he was promoted to a hereditary nobleman. In 1831 he acquired the village of Darovoe in the Kashirsky district of the Tula province, in 1833 the neighboring village of Chermoshnya. In raising his children, his father was an independent, educated, caring family man, but he had a quick-tempered and suspicious character. After the death of his wife in 1837, he retired and settled in Darovoe. According to the documents, he died of apoplectic stroke; according to the recollections of relatives and oral legends, he was killed by his peasants. Mother, Maria Fedorovna (née Nechaeva; 1800-1837). The Dostoevsky family had six more children: Mikhail, Varvara (1822-1893), Andrei, Vera (1829-1896), Nikolai (1831-1883), Alexandra (1835-1889). In 1833, Dostoevsky was given to NI Drashusov`s half-board; he and brother Mikhail went there "every morning and returned to dinner." From the fall of 1834 to the spring of 1837 Dostoevsky attended the private boarding school of L.I.Chermak, in which the astronomer D.M.Perevoshchikov and the paleologist A.M. Kubarev taught. The teacher of the Russian language N.I.Bilevich played a certain role in the spiritual development of Dostoevsky. Memories of the boarding house served as material for many of the writer`s works. Hardly enduring the death of his mother, which coincided with the news of the death of A.S. Pushkin (which he perceived as a personal loss), Dostoevsky in May 1837 went with his brother Mikhail to St. Petersburg and entered the preparatory boarding school of KF Kostomarov. At the same time, he met I.N.Shidlovsky, whose religious and romantic mood captivated Dostoevsky. Since January 1838, Dostoevsky studied at the Main Engineering School, describing his usual day as follows: "... from early morning to evening, we barely have time to follow the lectures in the classrooms. ... We are sent to the frunt training, we are given lessons in fencing, dancing , singing ... they put on guard, and all the time goes by in this ... ". The heavy impression of the "convict years" of the doctrine was partially brightened up by friendly relations with V. Grigorovich, the doctor A. E. Rizenkampf, the officer on duty A. I. Saveliev, the artist K. A. Trutovsky. Even on the way to St. Petersburg, Dostoevsky mentally "composed a novel from Venetian life," and in 1838 told Riesenkampf "about his own literary experiences." A literary circle was formed in the school around Dostoevsky. On February 16, 1841, at an evening hosted by brother Mikhail on the occasion of his departure to Revel, Dostoevsky read excerpts from two of his dramatic works - "Mary Stuart" and "Boris Godunov". Dostoevsky informed his brother about the work on the drama "Zhid Yankel" in January 1844. The manuscripts of the dramas have not survived, but already from their names the literary hobbies of the novice writer emerge: Schiller, Pushkin, Gogol. After the death of his father, the relatives of the writer`s mother took care of Dostoevsky`s younger brothers and sisters, and Fyodor and Mikhail received a small inheritance. After graduating from college (late 1843), he was enrolled as a field engineer-second lieutenant in the Petersburg engineering team, but already at the beginning of the summer of 1844, having decided to devote himself entirely to literature, he resigned and resigned with the rank of lieutenant. In January 1844, Dostoevsky completed the translation of Balzac`s story Eugene Grande, whom he was particularly fond of at that time. The translation was Dostoevsky`s first published literary work. In 1844 he began and in May 1845, after numerous alterations, he finished the novel Poor People. The novel Poor People, whose connection with Pushkin`s Stationmaster and Gogol`s Overcoat was emphasized by Dostoevsky himself, was an exceptional success. Based on the traditions of a physiological sketch, Dostoevsky creates a realistic picture of the life of the "downtrodden" inhabitants of the "Petersburg corners", a gallery of social types from the street beggar to "his excellency." Summer 1845 (like the next) Dostoevsky spent in Revel with his brother Mikhail. In the fall of 1845, upon his return to St. Petersburg, he often met with Belinsky. In October, the writer, together with Nekrasov and Grigorovich, compiles an anonymous program announcement for the almanac "Zuboskal" (03, 1845, No. 11), and in early December, at an evening at Belinsky`s, reads the chapters of "The Double" (03, 1846, No. 2), in which for the first time gives a psychological analysis of the split consciousness, "duality". The story "Mr. Prokharchin" (1846) and the story "The Hostess" (1847), in which many motives, ideas and characters of Dostoevsky`s works of the 1860-1870s were sketched, were not understood by modern criticism. Belinsky also radically changed his attitude towards Dostoevsky, condemning the "fantastic" element, "pretentiousness", "mannerism" of these works. In other works of the young Dostoevsky - in the stories "Weak Heart", "White Nights", the cycle of acute socio-psychological feuilletons "The Petersburg Chronicle" and the unfinished novel "Netochka Nezvanova" - the problems of the writer`s work are expanded, psychologism is enhanced with a characteristic emphasis on the analysis of the most difficult elusive internal phenomena. At the end of 1846, there was a cooling in the relationship between Dostoevsky and Belinsky. Later, he also had a conflict with the editors of Sovremennik: Dostoevsky`s suspicious, arrogant character played an important role here. Mockery of the writer by recent friends (especially Turgenev, Nekrasov), the harsh tone of Belinsky`s critical reviews about his works were acutely felt by the writer. At about this time, according to the testimony of Dr. S.D. Yanovsky, Dostoevsky developed the first symptoms of epilepsy. The writer is burdened by exhausting work for Otechestvennye zapiski. Poverty forced him to take on any literary work (in particular, he edited articles for the "Reference Encyclopedic Dictionary" by A. V. Starchevsky). In 1846, Dostoevsky became close to the Maikov family, regularly attends the literary and philosophical circle of the Beketov brothers, in which V. Maikov headed, and A.N. Maikov and A.N. Pleshcheev are Dostoevsky`s friends. From March to April 1847 Dostoevsky became a visitor to MV Butashevich-Petrashevsky`s "Fridays". He also participates in the organization of a secret printing house for printing appeals to the peasants and soldiers. Dostoevsky`s arrest took place on April 23, 1849; when arrested, his archive was confiscated and, probably, destroyed in Section III. Dostoevsky spent 8 months in the Alekseevsky Ravelin of the Peter and Paul Fortress under investigation, during which he showed courage, hiding many facts and trying to mitigate the guilt of his comrades as much as possible. He was recognized by the investigation as "one of the most important" among the Petrashevites, guilty of "intent to overthrow the existing domestic laws and state order." The initial verdict of the military court commission read: "... a retired engineer-lieutenant Dostoevsky, for failure to report on the dissemination of a criminal letter about religion and government by the writer Belinsky and the malicious essay of Lieutenant Grigoriev, to deprive ranks, all rights of the state and subject to the death penalty by shooting." On December 22, 1849, Dostoevsky, along with others, awaited execution of the death sentence on the Semyonovsky parade ground. By the resolution of Nicholas I, the execution was replaced by a 4-year hard labor with the deprivation of "all rights of the state" and subsequent surrender to the soldiers. On the night of December 24, Dostoevsky was sent in chains from Petersburg. On January 10, 1850, he arrived in Tobolsk, where the writer met with the wives of the Decembrists - P.E. Annenkova, A.G. Muravyova and N.D. Fonvizina; they gave him the gospel, which he kept all his life. From January 1850 to 1854 Dostoevsky, together with Durov, served hard labor as a "laborer" in the Omsk fortress. In January 1854 he was enlisted as a private in the 7th Line Battalion (Semipalatinsk) and was able to renew his correspondence with his brother Mikhail and A. Maikov. In November 1855, Dostoevsky was promoted to non-commissioned officer, and after long troubles of the prosecutor Wrangel and other Siberian and Petersburg acquaintances (including E.I. Totleben) - to ensign; in the spring of 1857, the hereditary nobility and the right to publish were returned to the writer, but police supervision over him remained until 1875. In 1857, Dostoevsky married the widowed M.D. Isaeva, who, in his words, was "a woman of the most sublime and enthusiastic soul ... The idealist was in the full sense of the word ... both pure and naive, moreover, she was just like a child." The marriage was not happy: Isaeva agreed after long hesitations that tormented Dostoevsky. In Siberia, the writer began work on memories of hard labor (the "Siberian" notebook containing folklore, ethnographic and diary entries served as a source for "Notes from the Dead House" and many other books by Dostoevsky). In 1857, his brother published the story "Little Hero", written by Dostoevsky in the Peter and Paul Fortress. Having created two "provincial" comic stories - "Uncle`s Dream" and "The Village of Stepanchikovo and Its Inhabitants", Dostoevsky entered into negotiations with M.N. Katkov, Nekrasov, A.A. Kraevsky. However, modern criticism did not appreciate and passed over in almost complete silence these first works of the "new" Dostoevsky. On March 18, 1859, Dostoevsky was dismissed "due to illness" to retire with the rank of second lieutenant, and received permission to live in Tver (with the prohibition of entry into the Petersburg and Moscow provinces). On July 2, 1859, he left Semipalatinsk with his wife and stepson. From 1859 - in Tver, where he renewed his previous literary acquaintances and made new ones. Later, the chief of the gendarmes notified the Tver governor of Dostoevsky`s permission to live in Petersburg, where he arrived in December 1859. Dostoevsky`s intensive activity combined editorial work on "other people`s" manuscripts with the publication of his own articles, polemical notes, notes, and most importantly, works of art. The novel "The Humiliated and the Offended" is a transitional work, a kind of return to a new stage of development to the motives of the art of the 1840s, enriched by the experience of what was experienced and felt in the 1850s; it has very strong autobiographical motives. At the same time, the novel contained the features of the plots, style and heroes of the works of the late Dostoevsky. "Notes from the House of the Dead" had a huge success. In Siberia, according to Dostoevsky, "gradually and after a very, very long time," his "convictions" have changed. The essence of these changes, Dostoevsky formulated in the most general form as "a return to the national root, to the recognition of the Russian soul, to the recognition of the spirit of the people." In the journals Vremya and Epoha, the Dostoevsky brothers appeared as the ideologists of "soil" - a specific modification of the ideas of Slavophilism. "Soilism" was rather an attempt to outline the contours of a "general idea", to find a platform that would reconcile Westernizers and Slavophiles, "civilization" and the popular principle. Skeptical about the revolutionary ways of transforming Russia and Europe, Dostoevsky expressed these doubts in works of art, articles and announcements of Vremya, in sharp polemics with the publications of Sovremennik. The essence of Dostoevsky`s objections is the possibility, after the reform, of rapprochement between the government and the intelligentsia with the people, their peaceful cooperation. Dostoevsky continues this polemic in the story "Notes from the Underground" ("Epoch", 1864) - a philosophical and artistic prelude to the "ideological" novels of the writer. Dostoevsky wrote: “I am proud that for the first time I brought out the real man of the Russian majority and for the first time exposed his ugly and tragic side. Tragedy consists in the consciousness of ugliness. I alone brought out the tragedy of the underground, consisting in suffering, in self-punishment, in the consciousness of the best and in the impossibility of achieving his and, most importantly, in the vivid conviction of these unfortunates that everyone is like that, and therefore, it is not worth correcting! " In June 1862 Dostoevsky went abroad for the first time; visited Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, England. In August 1863 the writer went abroad for the second time. In Paris, he met with A.P. Suslova, whose dramatic relationship with whom (1861-1866) was reflected in the novel The Gambler, The Idiot and other works. In Baden-Baden, carried away, by the recklessness of his nature, playing roulette, "all, completely to the ground" is played; this long-term passion for Dostoevsky is one of the qualities of his passionate nature. In October 1863 he returned to Russia. Until mid-November he lived with his sick wife in Vladimir, and at the end of 1863 - April 1864 - in Moscow, visiting St. Petersburg on business. 1864 brought heavy losses to Dostoevsky. On April 15, his wife died of consumption. The personality of Maria Dmitrievna, as well as the circumstances of their "unhappy" love, were reflected in many works of Dostoevsky (in particular, in the images of Katerina Ivanovna - "Crime and Punishment" and Nastasya Filippovna - "The Idiot"). On June 10, M.M. died. Dostoevsky. On September 26, Dostoevsky is present at the funeral of Grigoriev. After the death of his brother, Dostoevsky took upon himself the publication of the Epoch magazine, burdened with a great debt and lagging behind by 3 months; the magazine began to appear more regularly, but a sharp drop in subscriptions in 1865 forced the writer to stop publishing. He remained indebted to creditors about 15 thousand rubles, which he was able to pay only by the end of his life. In an effort to provide conditions for work, Dostoevsky signed a contract with F.T. Stellovsky to publish his collected works and undertook to write a new novel for him by November 1, 1866. In the spring of 1865, Dostoevsky was a frequent guest of the family of General V.V. Korvin-Krukovsky, whose eldest daughter A.V. Korvin-Krukovskaya he was greatly attracted by. In July, he left for Wiesbaden, from where in the fall of 1865 he offered Katkov a story for the Russian Bulletin, which later grew into a novel. In the summer of 1866, Dostoevsky was in Moscow and at his dacha in the village of Lyublino, near the family of his sister Vera Mikhailovna, where at night he wrote the novel Crime and Punishment. "The psychological account of one crime" became the plot line of the novel, the main idea of ​​which Dostoevsky outlined as follows: "Unsolvable questions arise before the murderer, unsuspected and unexpected feelings torment his heart. God`s truth, the earthly law takes its toll, and he ends up being forced I am compelled to die in hard labor, but to join the people again ... ". Petersburg and "current reality", a wealth of social characters, "a whole world of estate and professional types" are accurately and multifacetedly depicted in the novel, but this is a reality transformed and discovered by the artist, whose gaze penetrates to the very essence of things. Intense philosophical disputes, prophetic dreams, confessions and nightmares, grotesque caricature scenes that naturally turn into tragic, symbolic meetings of heroes, the apocalyptic image of a ghost town are organically linked in Dostoevsky`s novel. The novel, in the words of the author himself, was "extremely successful" and raised his "reputation as a writer." In 1866, the expiring contract with the publisher forced Dostoevsky to work simultaneously on two novels - Crime and Punishment and The Gambler. Dostoevsky resorts to an unusual way of working: on October 4, 1866, the stenographer A.G. Snitkin; he began to dictate to her the novel The Gambler, which reflected the writer`s impressions of his acquaintance with Western Europe. At the center of the novel is the clash of the "multi-developed, but unfinished in everything, distrustful and not daring not to believe, rebelling against authorities and fearing them" "foreign Russian" with "complete" European types. The main character is "a poet of his own kind, but the fact is that he himself is ashamed of this poetry, for he deeply feels its baseness, although the need for risk ennobles it in his own eyes." In the winter of 1867, Snitkina becomes the wife of Dostoevsky. The new marriage was more successful. From April 1867 to July 1871 Dostoevsky and his wife lived abroad (Berlin, Dresden, Baden-Baden, Geneva, Milan, Florence). There, on February 22, 1868, daughter Sophia was born, whose sudden death (May of the same year) Dostoevsky was very upset. Daughter Love was born on September 14, 1869; later in Russia on July 16, 1871 - son Fedor; 12 Aug 1875 - son Alexei, who died at the age of three from an epileptic seizure. In 1867-1868, Dostoevsky worked on the novel The Idiot. "The idea of ​​the novel," the author pointed out, "is my old and beloved, but so difficult that I did not dare to take on it for a long time. The main idea of ​​the novel is to portray a positively beautiful person. There is nothing more difficult in the world, and especially now ... Dostoevsky began to work on the novel The Demons, interrupting work on the widely conceived epics Atheism and The Life of the Great Sinner, and hastily composing the "Eternal Husband" "storyline." The immediate impetus for the creation of the novel was the "nechaev`s affair". The activities of the secret society "People`s Massacre", the murder by five members of the organization of the student of the Petrovskaya Agricultural Academy I.I. Ivanova - these are the events that formed the basis of "Demons" and received a philosophical and psychological interpretation in the novel. The writer`s attention was drawn to the circumstances of the murder, the ideological and organizational principles of the terrorists ("Catechism of a Revolutionary"), the figures of accomplices in the crime, the personality of the head of society S.G. Nechaev. In the process of working on the novel, the concept was modified many times. Initially, it is a direct response to events. The scope of the pamphlet later expanded significantly, not only nechaevites, but also figures of the 1860s, liberals of the 1840s, T.N. Granovsky, Petrashevtsy, Belinsky, V.S. Pecherin, A.I. Herzen, even the Decembrists and P.Ya. Chaadaev falls into the grotesque-tragic space of the novel. Gradually, the novel develops into a critical depiction of a common "illness" experienced by Russia and Europe, a striking symptom of which is the "devilry" of Nechaev and the Nechaevites. In the center of the novel, in its philosophical and ideological focus, is placed not the sinister "swindler" Pyotr Verkhovensky (Nechaev), but the mysterious and demonic figure of Nikolai Stavrogin, who "allowed himself everything." In July 1871 Dostoevsky returned to St. Petersburg with his wife and daughter. The writer spent the summer of 1872 with his family in Staraya Russa; this city has become a permanent summer residence for the family. In 1876 Dostoevsky bought a house here. In 1872 the writer visited the "milieu" of Prince VP Meshchersky, a supporter of counterreforms and publisher of the newspaper-magazine "Citizen". At the request of the publisher, supported by A. Maikov and Tyutchev, Dostoevsky in December 1872 agreed to take over the editorial staff of "Grazhdanin", having stipulated in advance that he was taking on these duties temporarily. In "Citizen" (1873) Dostoevsky realized the long-conceived idea of ​​a "Writer`s Diary" (a cycle of essays of a political, literary and memoir nature, united by the idea of ​​direct, personal communication with the reader), published a number of articles and notes (including political reviews "Foreign Events "). Soon Dostoevsky began to feel weary about the ed. work, the clashes with Meshchersky became more and more sharp, the impossibility of turning the weekly into an "organ of people with independent convictions" became more obvious. In the spring of 1874, the writer gave up editing, although he occasionally collaborated in "Citizen" and later. In connection with the deterioration of health (increased emphysema of the lungs) in June 1847 he left for treatment in Ems and repeated trips there in 1875, 1876 and 1879. In the mid-1870s. Dostoevsky`s relations with Saltykov-Shchedrin were resumed, which had been interrupted in the midst of the polemic between Epoch and Sovremennik, and with Nekrasov, at whose suggestion (1874) the writer published his new novel Teenager, a novel of education, in Otechestvennye zapiski. a kind of "Fathers and Sons" of Dostoevsky. The personality and worldview of the hero are formed in an atmosphere of "general decay" and disintegration of the foundations of society, in the struggle against the temptations of the century. The adolescent`s confession analyzes the complex, contradictory, chaotic process of personality formation in the "ugly" world that has lost its "moral center", the slow maturation of a new "idea" under the powerful influence of the "great thought" of the wanderer Versilov and the philosophy of life of the "noble" wanderer Makar Dolgoruky. At the end of 1875, Dostoevsky again returned to publicistic work - the "mono-journal" "Diary of a Writer" (1876 and 1877), which had great success and allowed the writer to enter into direct dialogue with correspondent readers. The author defined the nature of the publication as follows: "A Writer`s Diary" will look like a feuilleton, but with the difference that a feuilleton in a month cannot naturally resemble a feuilleton in a week. I am not a chronicler: on the contrary, this is a perfect diary in the full sense of the word, that is, a report on what interested me most personally. "" Diary "1876-1877 - a fusion of journalistic articles, essays, feuilletons," anti-critic ", memoirs and fiction The "Diary" refracted the immediate, hot pursuit, impressions and opinions of Dostoevsky about the most important phenomena of European and Russian socio-political and cultural life, which worried Dostoevsky`s legal, social, ethical-pedagogical, aesthetic and political problems. “The writer`s attempts to see in the modern chaos the contours of the“ new creation ”, the foundations of the“ emerging ”life, to predict the appearance of“ the coming future Russia of honest people who need only one truth. ”Criticism of bourgeois Europe, a deep analysis of the state of post-reform Russia are paradoxically combined in Diary "with polemics against various currents of social thought of the 1870s., From conservative utopias s - to populist and socialist ideas. In the last years of his life, Dostoevsky`s popularity increased. In 1877 he was elected a corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. In May 1879, the writer was invited to the International Literary Congress in London, at the session of which he was elected a member of the honorary committee of the International Literary Association. Dostoevsky takes an active part in the activities of the St. Petersburg Frebel Society. He often speaks at literary and musical evenings and matinees with reading excerpts from his works and Pushkin`s poems. In January 1877 Dostoevsky, impressed by Nekrasov`s "Last Songs," visits the dying poet, often sees him in November; On December 30, he makes a speech at the funeral of Nekrasov. Dostoevsky`s activity required a direct acquaintance with "living life". He visits (with the assistance of A.F.Kony) the juvenile delinquents` colony (1875) and the Foundling Home (1876). In 1878, after the death of his beloved son Alyosha, he made a trip to Optina Pustyn, where he talked with Elder Ambrose. The writer is especially worried about the events in Russia. In March 1878, Dostoevsky is at the trial of Vera Zasulich in the hall of the St. Petersburg District Court, and in April he replies to a letter from students asking them to speak out about the beating of a student demonstration by shopkeepers; In February 1880 he attended the execution of I.O. Mlodetsky, who shot at M.T.Loris-Melikov. Intensive, diverse contacts with the surrounding reality, active journalistic and social activities served as a multilateral preparation for a new stage in the writer`s work. In the "Diary of a Writer" the ideas and plot of his latest novel matured and tested. At the end of 1877, Dostoevsky announced the termination of the "Diary" in connection with the intention to take up "one artistic work that had developed ... during these two years of publication of the" Diary "inconspicuously and involuntarily." The Brothers Karamazov is the final work of the writer, in which the artistic embodiment received many ideas of his work. The history of the Karamazovs, as the author wrote, is not just a family chronicle, but a typified and generalized "image of our modern reality, our modern intellectual Russia." Philosophy and psychology of "crime and punishment", the dilemma "of socialism and Christianity ", the eternal struggle of" God "and" devil "in the souls of people, the traditional for classical Russian literature theme of" fathers and children "- this is the problematic of the novel. In" The Brothers Karamazov "the criminal offense is connected with the great world" questions "and eternal artistic and philosophical In January 1881, Dostoevsky speaks at a meeting of the Council of the Slavic Charitable Society, works on the first issue of the renewed "Diary of a Writer", learns the role of the schema-monk in "The Death of Ivan the Terrible" by A. K. Tolstoy for a home performance in the salon of S. A. Tolstoy, decides to "certainly participate in the Pushkin evening" on January 29 He was going to "publish" The Diary of a Writer "... for two years, and then dreamed of writing the second part of" The Brothers Karamazov ", where almost all the former heroes would appear ...". On the night of January 25-26, Dostoevsky`s throat began to bleed. In the afternoon of January 28, Dostoevsky said goodbye to the children, at 8:38 am. in the evening he passed away. The funeral of the writer took place on January 31, 1881 with a huge crowd of people. He is buried in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra in St. Petersburg. Source: http://www.dostoevskiy.net.ru