Men Without Women

Men Without Women by Ernest Miller Hemingway

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Ernest Miller Hemingway

A book by Ernest Miller Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway (English Ernest Miller Hemingway ) (1899-1961) is an American writer. Laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1954). Hemingway received wide recognition thanks to his novels and numerous stories - on the one hand, and his life, full of adventures and surprises - on the other. His style, concise and rich, strongly influenced 20th century American and British literature. Born July 21, 1899 in a privileged suburb of Chicago - Oak Park, Illinois, USA. His father, Clarence Edmont Hemingway, was a physician, and his mother, Grace Hall, devoted her life to raising children. From early childhood, his father tried to instill in Ernest a love of nature, dreaming that he would follow in his footsteps and take up medicine and natural science. When Ernie was 3 years old, Clarence Hemingway gave him his first fishing rod and took him fishing. By the age of 8, the future writer already knew by heart the names of all trees, flowers, birds, fish and animals that lived in the Midwest. Another favorite pastime for Ernest was literature. The boy sat for hours at the books that he could find in the home library, he especially liked Darwin`s works and historical literature. Mrs.

Hemingway dreamed of a different future for her son. She made him sing in the church choir and play the cello. Many years later, as an elderly man, Ernest will say: My mother did not let me go to school for a whole year so that I could study music. She thought I had ability, but I didn`t have any talent. However, resistance to this was suppressed by his mother - Hemingway had to make music daily. In addition to the winter home in Oak Park, the family also had a Windmere cottage on Walloon Lake. Every summer, Hemingway went with his parents, brothers and sisters to these quiet places. For the boy, the trip to Windmere meant complete freedom. Nobody forced him to play the cello, and he could go about his business - sit on the shore with a fishing rod, wander through the woods, play with children from an Indian village. In 1911, when Ernest was 12 years old, Hemingway`s grandfather gave him a 20-gauge single-shot shotgun. This gift strengthened the friendship between grandfather and grandson. The boy loved to listen to the old man`s stories and kept good memories of him for the rest of his life, often transferring them into his works in the future. Hunting became Ernest`s main passion. Clarence taught his son how to handle weapons and track the beast. Hemingway will devote one of his first stories about Nick Adams, his alter ego, to the hunt and the figure of his father. His personality, life and tragic end - Clarence will commit suicide - will always worry the writer. A naturally healthy and strong youth, Hemingway was actively involved in boxing and football. He later said: Boxing taught me to never stay lying down, always be ready to attack again ...

quickly and hard, like a bull. During his school years, Hemingway made his debut as a writer in the small school magazine "Tablet". First, the "Court of Manitou" was published - an essay with northern exoticism, blood and Indian folklore. And in the next issue, a new story "It`s All About Skin Color" - about the behind-the-scenes and dirty commercial side of boxing. In the summer of 1916, after school, Ernest, seeking to win independence from his parents, went with a friend on an independent trip to Northern Michigan. There he experiences a lot of impressions that will later be included in many of the writer`s works. After this summer, the story "Sepi Jingan" will appear - about a hunter from the Ojibuei tribe, talking about blood feud. All these first literary experiments were given to Ernest without much difficulty, and he decided to write weekly reports for the school newspaper "Trapezia". These are mainly reports on sports, concerts. Especially popular were snide remarks about the "social life" of Oak Park. At this time, Hemingway had already firmly decided for himself that he would be a writer. After graduating from high school, he decided not to go to university, as required by his parents, and moved to Kansas City, where he got a job at the local newspaper Star. Here he was in charge of a small area of ​​the city, which included the main hospital, train station and police station. The young reporter went to all incidents, got acquainted with brothels, encountered prostitutes, hired killers and swindlers, visited fires and in prisons. Ernest observed, remembered, tried to understand the motives of human actions, caught the manner of conversation, gestures and smells. All this was deposited in his memory, in order to later become plots, details and dialogues of his future stories. Here his literary style and habit of being always in the center of events were formed. The editors of the newspaper taught him the accuracy and clarity of language and tried to suppress any verbosity and stylistic negligence. Hemingway wanted to serve in the army, but due to poor eyesight he was refused for a long time. But he still managed to get to the fronts of the First World War in Italy, signing up as a volunteer chauffeur for the Red Cross. On the very first day of his stay in Milan, Ernest and other recruits were thrown straight from the train to clear the territory of an exploded ammunition plant. A few years later, he will describe his impressions of the first encounter with the war in his book Death in the Afternoon. The next day, young Hemingway was sent as an ambulance driver to the front in a detachment stationed in the town of Shio. However, most of the time here was spent in entertainment: visiting saloons, playing cards and baseball. Ernest could not endure such a life for a long time and achieved a transfer to the Piave River, where he became involved in servicing army shops. And soon he found a way to be on the front line, volunteering to deliver food to the soldiers directly into the trenches. On July 8, 1918, Hemingway, rescuing a wounded Italian sniper, came under fire from Austrian machine guns and mortars, but survived. In the hospital, 26 fragments were removed from him, while Ernest`s body had more than two hundred wounds. Soon he was transported to Milan, where doctors replaced the shot-through kneecap with an aluminum prosthesis. On January 21, 1919, Ernest returned to the United States as a hero - all the central newspapers wrote about him as the first American wounded on the Italian front. And the king of Italy awarded him a silver medal "For Valor" and "Military Cross". The writer himself will later say: I was a big fool when I went to that war. I thought we were a sports team and the Austrians were another team in the competition. Hemingway spent almost a year with his family, healing his wounds and thinking about his future. On February 20, 1920, he moves to Toronto to return to journalism. His new employer, the Toronto Star newspaper, allowed the young reporter to write about any topic, but only the published material was paid. Ernest`s first works, The Wandering Art Exhibition and Try Shaving Free, ridiculed the snobbery of art lovers and American prejudice. Later, more serious materials appeared about the war, about veterans that no one needs at home, about gangsters and stupid officials. In the same years, the writer had a conflict with his mother, who did not want to see Ernest as an adult. As a result of several quarrels and skirmishes, Hemingway took all his belongings from Oak Park and moved to Chicago. In this city, he continued to work with Toronto Stao, while doing editorial work for Cooperative Commonwealth magazine. On September 3, 1921, Ernest marries the young pianist Hadley Richardson and goes with her to Paris, the city of which he has long dreamed. In Paris, the young Hemingway couple settled in a small apartment on the rue Cardinal Lemoine near the Place Counterscarp. In the book "The Holiday That Is Always With You" Ernest writes: There was no hot water and no sewage system. But from the window there was a good view. There was a good box-spring mattress on the floor, which served as a comfortable bed for us. There were pictures on the wall that we liked. The apartment seemed bright and comfortable. Hemingway had to work hard to have a livelihood and allow himself to travel around the world during the summer months. And he starts sending his stories to the Toronto Star weekly. The editors expected from the writer sketches of European life, details of everyday life and customs. This gave Ernest the opportunity to choose the themes for the essays and practice his style on them. Hemingway`s first works were essays ridiculing American tourists, "golden youth" and life-makers who flooded into post-war Europe for cheap entertainment ("This is what Paris is like," "American Bohemia in Paris," etc.). In 1922 Ernest met Sylvia Beach, owner of the Shakespeare and Company bookshop. Warm friendly relations are established between them. Hemingway often spends time at Sylvia`s institution, renting books, getting acquainted with Parisian bohemians, writers and artists who are also regulars at the shop. One of the most interesting and significant for young Ernest was his acquaintance with Gertrude Stein. She became for Hemingway an older and more experienced comrade, with her he consulted about what he wrote, often talked about literature. Gertrude was dismissive of working in the newspaper and constantly convinced that Ernest`s main purpose was to be a writer. Hemingway was eyeing James Joyce, a frequent visitor to Sylvia Beach`s shop, with great interest. And when Joyce`s novel Ulysses was banned by censors in the United States and England, he, through his friends in Chicago, was able to organize the illegal transportation and distribution of books. Ernest Hemingway`s first real literary success came in 1926 with the publication of The Sun Also Rises, a pessimistic yet brilliant novel about a “lost generation” of young people living in France and Spain in the 1920s. In 1927 Ernest Hemingway published a collection of short stories "Men Without Women", and in 1933 - "The Winner Gets Nothing." They finally established Hemingway in the eyes of readers as a unique author of short stories. Notable among them are The Assassins, The Short Happiness of Francis Macomber, and The Snows of Kilimanjaro. Yet most of Hemingway is remembered for the novel Farewell to Arms! - the story of the unhappy love of an American volunteer and an English nurse, developing against the backdrop of the battles of the First World War. The book was an unprecedented success in America - even the economic crisis did not interfere with sales. In early 1930, Hemingway returned to the United States and settled in Key West, Florida. Here he enjoys fishing, travels on his yacht to the Bahamas, Cuba and writes new stories. According to the writer`s biographers, it was at this time that the fame of a great writer came to him. Everything marked by his authorship was quickly published and sold in numerous editions. In the house where he spent some of the best years of his life, a museum of the writer was created. The pilgrimage to him of fans of Hemingway`s talent does not stop for a single day. In the fall of 1930, Ernest was involved in a serious car accident that resulted in fractures, head trauma, and nearly six months of recovery from his injuries. The writer temporarily abandons the pencils with which he usually works and begins to type on a typewriter. In 1932, he took up the novel Death in the Afternoon, where he described bullfighting with great accuracy, presenting it as a ritual and a test of courage. The book became a bestseller again, confirming Hemingway`s status as America`s number one writer. In 1933, Hemingway took up a collection of short stories Winner Gets Nothing, the proceeds of which he planned to spend on the fulfillment of his long-held dream - a long safari in East Africa. The book succeeded again, and at the end of that year, the writer went on a journey. Hemingway arrived in the Lake Tanganyika area, where he hired a serviceman and guides from among the representatives of local tribes, set up camp and began to go hunting. In January 1934, Ernest, returning from another safari, fell ill with amoebic dysentery. Every day the writer`s condition worsened, he was delirious, and his body was severely dehydrated. A special plane was sent from Dar es Salaam for the writer, which took him to the capital of the territory. Here in an English hospital, he spent a week undergoing a course of active therapy, after which he went on the mend. Nevertheless, this hunting season ended well for Hemingway: he shot a lion three times, twenty-seven antelopes, a large buffalo and other African animals. The writer`s impressions of Tanganyika are recorded in the book "Green Hills of Africa". The work, in fact, was Ernest`s diary as a hunter and traveler. At the beginning of 1937, the writer finished another book - "To have and not to have." The story gave the author`s assessment of the events of the Great Depression in the United States. Hemingway looked at the problem through the eyes of a Florida man who, fleeing want, becomes a smuggler. Here, for the first time in many years, a social theme appeared in the writer`s work, largely caused by the alarming situation in Spain. A civil war broke out there, which very much worried Ernest Hemingway. He sided with the Republicans who fought with General Franco, and organized a fundraiser in their favor. After collecting the money, Ernest appeals to the North American Association of Newspapers with a request to send him to Madrid to cover the course of the hostilities. Soon a film crew was assembled, led by filmmaker Joris Ivens, who intended to shoot the documentary "The Land of Spain". The script was written by Hemingway. In the most difficult days of the war, Ernest was in Madrid, besieged by the Nazis, at the Florida Hotel, which for a time became the headquarters of internationalists and the club of correspondents. During the bombing and shelling, the only play was written - "The Fifth Column" - about the work of counterintelligence. Here he also meets the American journalist Martha Gellhorn, who, upon returning home, will become his third wife. From Madrid, the writer left for Catalonia for some time, as the battles near Barcelona were particularly brutal. Here, in one of the trenches, Ernest met the French writer and pilot Antoine de Saint-Exupéry and the commander of the international brigade Hans Calais. Impressions of the war were reflected in one of Hemingway`s most famous novels, For Whom the Bell Tolls. It combines the vividness of the pictures of the collapse of the republic, the comprehension of the lessons of history that led to such an ending, and the belief that a person will survive even in tragic times. In 1941, Hemingway went to Baltimore, where he bought a large naval boat from a local shipyard, giving it the name Pilar. He overtook the ship to Cuba, where he became interested in sea fishing. However, on December 7, Japan attacked the United States, attacking the Pearl Harbor base. In response, the Americans went to war, and the Pacific became an active war zone. The military theme was one of the most beloved in Hemingway`s work. With the outbreak of World War II, he resumed his journalistic activities, moving to London as a correspondent. And before that, in 1941-1943, Ernest organized counterintelligence against fascist spies in Cuba and hunted on his Pilar boat for German submarines in the Caribbean. In 1944, Hemingway took part in combat flights of bombers over Germany and occupied France. And during the landing of the allies in Normandy, he seeks permission to participate in combat and reconnaissance operations. Ernest leads a detachment of French partisans of about 200 people and participates in the battles for Paris, Belgium, Alsace, in the breakthrough of the Siegfried Line, and often finds himself on the front line in front of the main troops. In 1949, the writer moved to Cuba, where he resumed his literary activity. The story "The Old Man and the Sea" was written there. The book talks about a heroic and doomed opposition to the forces of nature, about a man who is alone in a world where he can only rely on his own perseverance, faced with the eternal injustice of fate. The allegorical story of an old fisherman fighting sharks who devoured a huge fish he caught is marked by features that are most characteristic of Hemingway as an artist: a dislike for intellectual sophistication, adherence to situations in which moral values ​​are clearly manifested, a mean psychological drawing. In 1953 Ernest Hemingway received the Pulitzer Prize for his story The Old Man and the Sea. This work also influenced the award of the Nobel Prize in Literature to Hemingway in 1954.

In 1956, Hemingway begins work on an autobiographical book about Paris in the 1920s - "The Feast That Is Always With You", which will be released only after the death of the writer. He continued to travel and in 1953 in Africa was in a serious plane crash. In 1960, Hemingway left Cuba and returned to the United States. Hemingway suffered from a number of serious physical illnesses, including hypertension and diabetes, but was admitted to the Mayo Psychiatric Clinic for "treatment", where the psychiatrist ignored these obvious factors and dealt only with the "mental disorders" that Hemingway had been "awarded" by his colleagues. He plunged into deep depression and paranoia about surveillance. It seemed to him that FBI agents were following him everywhere and that bugs were placed everywhere, phones were tapped, mail was read, bank account was constantly checked. He could mistake bystanders for agents. They tried to treat Hemingway according to the laws of psychiatry at the time. Electroconvulsive therapy was used as a treatment. After 20 sessions of ECT, Hemingway lost his memory and the ability to formulate thoughts in writing: when it was required, he could not write even a few words of an official greeting. Here is what Hemingway himself said: These doctors, who gave me electric shock, do not understand writers ...

Let all psychiatrists learn to write works of fiction in order to understand what it means to be a writer ...

what was the point in destroying my brain and erase my memory, which is my capital, and throw me to the sidelines of life? During treatment, he called his friend from the phone in the clinic corridor to inform him that the bugs were also placed in the clinic. Attempts to treat him in a similar way were repeated later. However, this did not produce any results. He could not work, was depressed and paranoid, and increasingly talked about suicide. There were also attempts (for example, an unexpected jerk towards the propeller of the aircraft, etc.), from which it was possible to save it. On July 2, 1961, at his home in Ketchum, a few days after being discharged from the Mayo Psychiatric Clinic, Hemingway shot himself with his favorite gun without leaving a suicide note.

Men Without Women PDF

Ernest Miller Hemingway (English Ernest Miller Hemingway ) (1899-1961) is an American writer. Laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1954). Hemingway received wide recognition thanks to his novels and numerous stories - on the one hand, and his life, full of adventures and surprises - on the other. His style, concise and rich, strongly influenced 20th century American and British literature. Born July 21, 1899 in a privileged suburb of Chicago - Oak Park, Illinois, USA. His father, Clarence Edmont Hemingway, was a physician, and his mother, Grace Hall, devoted her life to raising children. From early childhood, his father tried to instill in Ernest a love of nature, dreaming that he would follow in his footsteps and take up medicine and natural science. When Ernie was 3 years old, Clarence Hemingway gave him his first fishing rod and took him fishing. By the age of 8, the future writer already knew by heart the names of all trees, flowers, birds, fish and animals that lived in the Midwest. Another favorite pastime for Ernest was literature. The boy sat for hours at the books that he could find in the home library, he especially liked Darwin`s works and historical literature. Mrs. Hemingway dreamed of a different future for her son. She made him sing in the church choir and play the cello. Many years later, as an elderly man, Ernest will say: My mother did not let me go to school for a whole year so that I could study music. She thought I had ability, but I didn`t have any talent. However, resistance to this was suppressed by his mother - Hemingway had to make music daily. In addition to the winter home in Oak Park, the family also had a Windmere cottage on Walloon Lake. Every summer, Hemingway went with his parents, brothers and sisters to these quiet places. For the boy, the trip to Windmere meant complete freedom. Nobody forced him to play the cello, and he could go about his business - sit on the shore with a fishing rod, wander through the woods, play with children from an Indian village. In 1911, when Ernest was 12 years old, Hemingway`s grandfather gave him a 20-gauge single-shot shotgun. This gift strengthened the friendship between grandfather and grandson. The boy loved to listen to the old man`s stories and kept good memories of him for the rest of his life, often transferring them into his works in the future. Hunting became Ernest`s main passion. Clarence taught his son how to handle weapons and track the beast. Hemingway will devote one of his first stories about Nick Adams, his alter ego, to the hunt and the figure of his father. His personality, life and tragic end - Clarence will commit suicide - will always worry the writer. A naturally healthy and strong youth, Hemingway was actively involved in boxing and football. He later said: Boxing taught me to never stay lying down, always be ready to attack again ... quickly and hard, like a bull. During his school years, Hemingway made his debut as a writer in the small school magazine "Tablet". First, the "Court of Manitou" was published - an essay with northern exoticism, blood and Indian folklore. And in the next issue, a new story "It`s All About Skin Color" - about the behind-the-scenes and dirty commercial side of boxing. In the summer of 1916, after school, Ernest, seeking to win independence from his parents, went with a friend on an independent trip to Northern Michigan. There he experiences a lot of impressions that will later be included in many of the writer`s works. After this summer, the story "Sepi Jingan" will appear - about a hunter from the Ojibuei tribe, talking about blood feud. All these first literary experiments were given to Ernest without much difficulty, and he decided to write weekly reports for the school newspaper "Trapezia". These are mainly reports on sports, concerts. Especially popular were snide remarks about the "social life" of Oak Park. At this time, Hemingway had already firmly decided for himself that he would be a writer. After graduating from high school, he decided not to go to university, as required by his parents, and moved to Kansas City, where he got a job at the local newspaper Star. Here he was in charge of a small area of ​​the city, which included the main hospital, train station and police station. The young reporter went to all incidents, got acquainted with brothels, encountered prostitutes, hired killers and swindlers, visited fires and in prisons. Ernest observed, remembered, tried to understand the motives of human actions, caught the manner of conversation, gestures and smells. All this was deposited in his memory, in order to later become plots, details and dialogues of his future stories. Here his literary style and habit of being always in the center of events were formed. The editors of the newspaper taught him the accuracy and clarity of language and tried to suppress any verbosity and stylistic negligence. Hemingway wanted to serve in the army, but due to poor eyesight he was refused for a long time. But he still managed to get to the fronts of the First World War in Italy, signing up as a volunteer chauffeur for the Red Cross. On the very first day of his stay in Milan, Ernest and other recruits were thrown straight from the train to clear the territory of an exploded ammunition plant. A few years later, he will describe his impressions of the first encounter with the war in his book Death in the Afternoon. The next day, young Hemingway was sent as an ambulance driver to the front in a detachment stationed in the town of Shio. However, most of the time here was spent in entertainment: visiting saloons, playing cards and baseball. Ernest could not endure such a life for a long time and achieved a transfer to the Piave River, where he became involved in servicing army shops. And soon he found a way to be on the front line, volunteering to deliver food to the soldiers directly into the trenches. On July 8, 1918, Hemingway, rescuing a wounded Italian sniper, came under fire from Austrian machine guns and mortars, but survived. In the hospital, 26 fragments were removed from him, while Ernest`s body had more than two hundred wounds. Soon he was transported to Milan, where doctors replaced the shot-through kneecap with an aluminum prosthesis. On January 21, 1919, Ernest returned to the United States as a hero - all the central newspapers wrote about him as the first American wounded on the Italian front. And the king of Italy awarded him a silver medal "For Valor" and "Military Cross". The writer himself will later say: I was a big fool when I went to that war. I thought we were a sports team and the Austrians were another team in the competition. Hemingway spent almost a year with his family, healing his wounds and thinking about his future. On February 20, 1920, he moves to Toronto to return to journalism. His new employer, the Toronto Star newspaper, allowed the young reporter to write about any topic, but only the published material was paid. Ernest`s first works, The Wandering Art Exhibition and Try Shaving Free, ridiculed the snobbery of art lovers and American prejudice. Later, more serious materials appeared about the war, about veterans that no one needs at home, about gangsters and stupid officials. In the same years, the writer had a conflict with his mother, who did not want to see Ernest as an adult. As a result of several quarrels and skirmishes, Hemingway took all his belongings from Oak Park and moved to Chicago. In this city, he continued to work with Toronto Stao, while doing editorial work for Cooperative Commonwealth magazine. On September 3, 1921, Ernest marries the young pianist Hadley Richardson and goes with her to Paris, the city of which he has long dreamed. In Paris, the young Hemingway couple settled in a small apartment on the rue Cardinal Lemoine near the Place Counterscarp. In the book "The Holiday That Is Always With You" Ernest writes: There was no hot water and no sewage system. But from the window there was a good view. There was a good box-spring mattress on the floor, which served as a comfortable bed for us. There were pictures on the wall that we liked. The apartment seemed bright and comfortable. Hemingway had to work hard to have a livelihood and allow himself to travel around the world during the summer months. And he starts sending his stories to the Toronto Star weekly. The editors expected from the writer sketches of European life, details of everyday life and customs. This gave Ernest the opportunity to choose the themes for the essays and practice his style on them. Hemingway`s first works were essays ridiculing American tourists, "golden youth" and life-makers who flooded into post-war Europe for cheap entertainment ("This is what Paris is like," "American Bohemia in Paris," etc.). In 1922 Ernest met Sylvia Beach, owner of the Shakespeare and Company bookshop. Warm friendly relations are established between them. Hemingway often spends time at Sylvia`s institution, renting books, getting acquainted with Parisian bohemians, writers and artists who are also regulars at the shop. One of the most interesting and significant for young Ernest was his acquaintance with Gertrude Stein. She became for Hemingway an older and more experienced comrade, with her he consulted about what he wrote, often talked about literature. Gertrude was dismissive of working in the newspaper and constantly convinced that Ernest`s main purpose was to be a writer. Hemingway was eyeing James Joyce, a frequent visitor to Sylvia Beach`s shop, with great interest. And when Joyce`s novel Ulysses was banned by censors in the United States and England, he, through his friends in Chicago, was able to organize the illegal transportation and distribution of books. Ernest Hemingway`s first real literary success came in 1926 with the publication of The Sun Also Rises, a pessimistic yet brilliant novel about a “lost generation” of young people living in France and Spain in the 1920s. In 1927 Ernest Hemingway published a collection of short stories "Men Without Women", and in 1933 - "The Winner Gets Nothing." They finally established Hemingway in the eyes of readers as a unique author of short stories. Notable among them are The Assassins, The Short Happiness of Francis Macomber, and The Snows of Kilimanjaro. Yet most of Hemingway is remembered for the novel Farewell to Arms! - the story of the unhappy love of an American volunteer and an English nurse, developing against the backdrop of the battles of the First World War. The book was an unprecedented success in America - even the economic crisis did not interfere with sales. In early 1930, Hemingway returned to the United States and settled in Key West, Florida. Here he enjoys fishing, travels on his yacht to the Bahamas, Cuba and writes new stories. According to the writer`s biographers, it was at this time that the fame of a great writer came to him. Everything marked by his authorship was quickly published and sold in numerous editions. In the house where he spent some of the best years of his life, a museum of the writer was created. The pilgrimage to him of fans of Hemingway`s talent does not stop for a single day. In the fall of 1930, Ernest was involved in a serious car accident that resulted in fractures, head trauma, and nearly six months of recovery from his injuries. The writer temporarily abandons the pencils with which he usually works and begins to type on a typewriter. In 1932, he took up the novel Death in the Afternoon, where he described bullfighting with great accuracy, presenting it as a ritual and a test of courage. The book became a bestseller again, confirming Hemingway`s status as America`s number one writer. In 1933, Hemingway took up a collection of short stories Winner Gets Nothing, the proceeds of which he planned to spend on the fulfillment of his long-held dream - a long safari in East Africa. The book succeeded again, and at the end of that year, the writer went on a journey. Hemingway arrived in the Lake Tanganyika area, where he hired a serviceman and guides from among the representatives of local tribes, set up camp and began to go hunting. In January 1934, Ernest, returning from another safari, fell ill with amoebic dysentery. Every day the writer`s condition worsened, he was delirious, and his body was severely dehydrated. A special plane was sent from Dar es Salaam for the writer, which took him to the capital of the territory. Here in an English hospital, he spent a week undergoing a course of active therapy, after which he went on the mend. Nevertheless, this hunting season ended well for Hemingway: he shot a lion three times, twenty-seven antelopes, a large buffalo and other African animals. The writer`s impressions of Tanganyika are recorded in the book "Green Hills of Africa". The work, in fact, was Ernest`s diary as a hunter and traveler. At the beginning of 1937, the writer finished another book - "To have and not to have." The story gave the author`s assessment of the events of the Great Depression in the United States. Hemingway looked at the problem through the eyes of a Florida man who, fleeing want, becomes a smuggler. Here, for the first time in many years, a social theme appeared in the writer`s work, largely caused by the alarming situation in Spain. A civil war broke out there, which very much worried Ernest Hemingway. He sided with the Republicans who fought with General Franco, and organized a fundraiser in their favor. After collecting the money, Ernest appeals to the North American Association of Newspapers with a request to send him to Madrid to cover the course of the hostilities. Soon a film crew was assembled, led by filmmaker Joris Ivens, who intended to shoot the documentary "The Land of Spain". The script was written by Hemingway. In the most difficult days of the war, Ernest was in Madrid, besieged by the Nazis, at the Florida Hotel, which for a time became the headquarters of internationalists and the club of correspondents. During the bombing and shelling, the only play was written - "The Fifth Column" - about the work of counterintelligence. Here he also meets the American journalist Martha Gellhorn, who, upon returning home, will become his third wife. From Madrid, the writer left for Catalonia for some time, as the battles near Barcelona were particularly brutal. Here, in one of the trenches, Ernest met the French writer and pilot Antoine de Saint-Exupéry and the commander of the international brigade Hans Calais. Impressions of the war were reflected in one of Hemingway`s most famous novels, For Whom the Bell Tolls. It combines the vividness of the pictures of the collapse of the republic, the comprehension of the lessons of history that led to such an ending, and the belief that a person will survive even in tragic times. In 1941, Hemingway went to Baltimore, where he bought a large naval boat from a local shipyard, giving it the name Pilar. He overtook the ship to Cuba, where he became interested in sea fishing. However, on December 7, Japan attacked the United States, attacking the Pearl Harbor base. In response, the Americans went to war, and the Pacific became an active war zone. The military theme was one of the most beloved in Hemingway`s work. With the outbreak of World War II, he resumed his journalistic activities, moving to London as a correspondent. And before that, in 1941-1943, Ernest organized counterintelligence against fascist spies in Cuba and hunted on his Pilar boat for German submarines in the Caribbean. In 1944, Hemingway took part in combat flights of bombers over Germany and occupied France. And during the landing of the allies in Normandy, he seeks permission to participate in combat and reconnaissance operations. Ernest leads a detachment of French partisans of about 200 people and participates in the battles for Paris, Belgium, Alsace, in the breakthrough of the Siegfried Line, and often finds himself on the front line in front of the main troops. In 1949, the writer moved to Cuba, where he resumed his literary activity. The story "The Old Man and the Sea" was written there. The book talks about a heroic and doomed opposition to the forces of nature, about a man who is alone in a world where he can only rely on his own perseverance, faced with the eternal injustice of fate. The allegorical story of an old fisherman fighting sharks who devoured a huge fish he caught is marked by features that are most characteristic of Hemingway as an artist: a dislike for intellectual sophistication, adherence to situations in which moral values ​​are clearly manifested, a mean psychological drawing. In 1953 Ernest Hemingway received the Pulitzer Prize for his story The Old Man and the Sea. This work also influenced the award of the Nobel Prize in Literature to Hemingway in 1954. In 1956, Hemingway begins work on an autobiographical book about Paris in the 1920s - "The Feast That Is Always With You", which will be released only after the death of the writer. He continued to travel and in 1953 in Africa was in a serious plane crash. In 1960, Hemingway left Cuba and returned to the United States. Hemingway suffered from a number of serious physical illnesses, including hypertension and diabetes, but was admitted to the Mayo Psychiatric Clinic for "treatment", where the psychiatrist ignored these obvious factors and dealt only with the "mental disorders" that Hemingway had been "awarded" by his colleagues. He plunged into deep depression and paranoia about surveillance. It seemed to him that FBI agents were following him everywhere and that bugs were placed everywhere, phones were tapped, mail was read, bank account was constantly checked. He could mistake bystanders for agents. They tried to treat Hemingway according to the laws of psychiatry at the time. Electroconvulsive therapy was used as a treatment. After 20 sessions of ECT, Hemingway lost his memory and the ability to formulate thoughts in writing: when it was required, he could not write even a few words of an official greeting. Here is what Hemingway himself said: These doctors, who gave me electric shock, do not understand writers ... Let all psychiatrists learn to write works of fiction in order to understand what it means to be a writer ... what was the point in destroying my brain and erase my memory, which is my capital, and throw me to the sidelines of life? During treatment, he called his friend from the phone in the clinic corridor to inform him that the bugs were also placed in the clinic. Attempts to treat him in a similar way were repeated later. However, this did not produce any results. He could not work, was depressed and paranoid, and increasingly talked about suicide. There were also attempts (for example, an unexpected jerk towards the propeller of the aircraft, etc.), from which it was possible to save it. On July 2, 1961, at his home in Ketchum, a few days after being discharged from the Mayo Psychiatric Clinic, Hemingway shot himself with his favorite gun without leaving a suicide note.