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George Eliot

A book by George Eliot

George Eliot (born George Eliot; real name Mary Ann Evans, Mary Ann Evans; November 22, 1819, Arbury estate in Warwickshire - December 22, 1880, London) - English writer. In 1841 she moved with her father to Foulshill, near Coventry. In 1846 Mary Ann published anonymously a translation of The Life of Jesus by DF Strauss. After the death of her father (1849), not without hesitation, she accepted the position of assistant editor at Westminster Riverview and in 1851 she moved to London. In 1854 her translation of The Essence of Christianity by L.

Feuerbach was published. At the same time, her civil marriage began with J.

G.

Lewis, a famous literary critic, who also wrote on scientific and philosophical topics. In the first months of their life together, Mary Ann completed the translation of Spinoza`s Ethics and in September 1856 turned to fiction. Her first work was a series of three novellas that appeared in the Blackwoods Magazine in 1857 under the general title Scenes of Clerical Life and the pseudonym George Eliot. Like many other writers of the 19th century (Georges Sand, Marco Vovchok, the Brontë sisters - "Carrer, Ellis and Acton Bell", Krestovsky-Khvoshchinskaya) - Mary Evans used a male pseudonym in order to cause the public to take her writings seriously and take care of the integrity my personal life. (In the 19th century, her works were translated into Russian without disclosing a pseudonym, which declined like a man`s first and last name: "George Eliot`s novel"). Nevertheless, Charles Dickens immediately guessed a woman in the mysterious "Eliot". Eliot`s acclaimed masterpiece is Middlemarch; published in parts in 1871-1872. Eliot shows how a powerful striving for good can destroy hidden weakness, how complexities of character negate the noblest aspirations, how moral rebirth befalls people who are not bad at all. Eliot`s last novel, Daniel Deronda, appeared in 1876.

Lewis died two years later, and the writer devoted herself to preparing his manuscripts for publication. In May 1880, she married an old family friend, D.W.

Cross, but died on December 22, 1880. Material from Wikipedia - the free encyclopedia In Russia, the name of the 19th century English writer George Eliot is, in principle, well known. This happened because her novels were highly appreciated by Nikolai Chernyshevsky and Leo Tolstoy, and Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin even took part in the translation of her novel Middlemarch. Tolstoy, by the way, generally mentioned Eliot among the authors who had a significant influence on him. In addition, Eliot was close friends with other Russian writers - Ivan Turgenev and Sophia Kovalevskaya. Turgenev regarded Eliot as "one of the greatest and most sympathetic writers" of his time and considered her a "first-plan writer" (while himself a "supporting writer"). And after Eliot`s death, Kovalevskaya even published her memoirs, in which she spoke very vividly about her meetings with an English writer. But despite such a high assessment of the great Russian writers, in our time there is often a misconception that Eliot is an outdated moralizing classic. Meanwhile, Eliot`s works are not only not outdated, but despite the century and a half that separate us from Victorian England, today they have acquired a rather relevant sound. Especially prophetic is Eliot`s last novel, Daniel Deronda, written in 1876. Paradoxically, this novel, in which the Jewish theme is only one of two main storylines, is rightfully considered a classic of Zionism, and for the Jewish reader, one of the most important books of the 19th century. By the time the novel was published, Eliot was already at the height of literary fame, and each new work was an event that was talked about and written about in all newspapers and magazines. About the novel "Daniel Deronda" was written including in all Jewish newspapers and magazines - the Jewish world warmly perceived it as an ode of the great writer in defense of the Jews. London`s first rabbi, Herman Adler, lectured Jewish workers on "Daniel Deronda", a novel that had a huge impact on Emma Lazarus. However, the novel caused bewilderment among non-Jewish audiences. Eliot herself, anticipating this, wrote in correspondence with Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom`s Cabin: “...

precisely because the attitude of Christians towards Jews is so meaningless and so contrary to the spirit of our religion, I felt the need to write about them ...

Can there be anything more outrageous than when the so-called developed people show complete ignorance of the connection that exists between our entire civilization and the history of the people over which they refine their wit? It is possible that compassion for Jews was caused by Eliot`s interest in marginal figures forced to fight against stereotypes accepted in society. To some extent, she herself was such a figure - it was not for nothing that she had to take a man`s name as a pseudonym. However, in general, Eliot`s interest in Jewish culture - or, in the words of Himmelfarb, the writer `s "Jewish Odyssey" - began long before she wrote Daniel Deronda. Her common-law husband Lewis was a Philosemite, and her own intellectual interests have always revolved around historically significant Jewish figures - Baruch Spinoza, Rachel Varnhagen. Eliot learned Hebrew in her youth and was quite fluent in it - her Jewish education was studied by Emanuel Deutsch, a famous orientalist from the British Museum and a connoisseur of the Talmud. Despite everything, just before writing Daniel Deronda, Eliot did a tremendous job of thoroughly studying the history of the Jewish people and their current position in various European states. Formally, the novel has two main characters, Gwendoline Harlet and Daniel Deronda. The Gwendolyn line is written deeply and authentically - it is the story of a selfish but strong young woman, whose spiritual growth takes place against the backdrop of various life troubles. And yet the real hero of the novel is still Daniel Deronda. Although, it should be said, his image was perceived by many critics as too idealized, and therefore less successful and psychologically reliable. Deronda at the beginning of the novel is a prosperous young Englishman who was brought up in the family of a wealthy English lord. The lord is attached to him as to his own son, and although Deronda is tormented by ignorance of her origin, he does not for a second suggest that he may have anything to do with Jewry. The Jewish line of the novel generally begins only after 34 chapters, with the fifth book, entitled Mordechai. It was then that Deronda`s life was changed by a chance meeting with a young Jewish girl, Mira Cohen. He keeps her from committing suicide and tries to track down the girl`s relatives, long lost by her in the East End, the Jewish part of London. As a result of the search for Mira`s relatives, among the new acquaintances of Deronda, an old man named Mordechai, who is sick with consumption, turns out to be, who has a cherished dream of restoring the Jewish state. Mordechai chooses Deronda as his successor and disciple, despite the latter`s categorical refusal to admit that he has something to do with Jewishness. As a result, Deronda learns that he is also a Jew. His mother deliberately chose for him a Christian upbringing in a strange family in order to protect him from the humiliating fate of his fellow believers. Deronda is not at all burdened by his newfound Jewry - on the contrary, his origin causes him joy and pride. After Deronda confesses to Mordechai that he is a Jew, the elder dies confident that the young man will fulfill his dream of creating a state for Jews. Deronda marries Mira and they leave for Palestine. In the novel, Ashkenazi Jews are presented in a positive light, which was an innovation for the time. In the European mind, there was an idealized image of the Eastern Jew-Sephardi, who retained authenticity, and it was opposed to the Ashkenazi, who had lost its authenticity. Therefore, the novel not only "rehabilitates" the Ashkenazi Jews, but also symbolically reinforces the Ashkenazi legitimacy in relation to the Sephardim by the marriage of Mira and Deronda (a Genoese Jew). It can be said without exaggeration that such an innovative description of the Ashkenazi and Sephardic as equals laid the first brick in the building of the national Jewish revival. The main prophecy of the novel, of course, is that Deronda and Mira find themselves in Palestine about two decades before the father of Zionism, Theodor Herzl, only writes about the possibility of creating a Jewish state. Jewish life in the novel is written out with ethnographic precision, and in the scenes of the meeting of the philosophical circle, various types of Jewish intellectuals appear who express ideas characteristic of that time regarding the Jewish question. Despite the fact that Eliot quite reliably describes Jewish types with all the diversity of their opinions, it should be noted that Mordechai`s arguments against assimilation amaze the reader with their modernity even today. Eliot, like any genius, in some prophetic way foresaw the Holocaust and the Holocaust of Jewry. Although, most likely, such a prophecy was the result of her scrupulous study of Jewish history. Despite the fact that the novel is distinguished by the organic unity of all parts and characters, critics often express the opinion that the novel falls into two independent parts. In the twentieth century, some of the critics said that the novel would not have been damaged by a "surgical operation" that would have freed him from the dead weight of another, Jewish part. Jewish publishers often published the novel without the Gwendolyn section. Against this background, the thought of Harvard University professor and Yiddish specialist Ruth Weiss sounds interesting. She says that the main idea of ​​the novel connecting Gwendoline with Deronda is that by the end of the novel, Deronda acquires a blood connection with her people and the place in which he was born - unlike Gwendolyn, who does not feel a connection with that place and traditions.

in which she was born and raised. By the way, when Theodor Herzl came to England in search of funds for the creation of the World Zionist Organization, one of his new acquaintances, Colonel Albert Edward Goldsmith, told him: "I am Daniel Deronda." And it became a kind of code for people sympathetic to the Zionist idea. based on materials from the site http://jewish.ru

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George Eliot (born George Eliot; real name Mary Ann Evans, Mary Ann Evans; November 22, 1819, Arbury estate in Warwickshire - December 22, 1880, London) - English writer. In 1841 she moved with her father to Foulshill, near Coventry. In 1846 Mary Ann published anonymously a translation of The Life of Jesus by DF Strauss. After the death of her father (1849), not without hesitation, she accepted the position of assistant editor at Westminster Riverview and in 1851 she moved to London. In 1854 her translation of The Essence of Christianity by L. Feuerbach was published. At the same time, her civil marriage began with J. G. Lewis, a famous literary critic, who also wrote on scientific and philosophical topics. In the first months of their life together, Mary Ann completed the translation of Spinoza`s Ethics and in September 1856 turned to fiction. Her first work was a series of three novellas that appeared in the Blackwoods Magazine in 1857 under the general title Scenes of Clerical Life and the pseudonym George Eliot. Like many other writers of the 19th century (Georges Sand, Marco Vovchok, the Brontë sisters - "Carrer, Ellis and Acton Bell", Krestovsky-Khvoshchinskaya) - Mary Evans used a male pseudonym in order to cause the public to take her writings seriously and take care of the integrity my personal life. (In the 19th century, her works were translated into Russian without disclosing a pseudonym, which declined like a man`s first and last name: "George Eliot`s novel"). Nevertheless, Charles Dickens immediately guessed a woman in the mysterious "Eliot". Eliot`s acclaimed masterpiece is Middlemarch; published in parts in 1871-1872. Eliot shows how a powerful striving for good can destroy hidden weakness, how complexities of character negate the noblest aspirations, how moral rebirth befalls people who are not bad at all. Eliot`s last novel, Daniel Deronda, appeared in 1876. Lewis died two years later, and the writer devoted herself to preparing his manuscripts for publication. In May 1880, she married an old family friend, D.W. Cross, but died on December 22, 1880. Material from Wikipedia - the free encyclopedia In Russia, the name of the 19th century English writer George Eliot is, in principle, well known. This happened because her novels were highly appreciated by Nikolai Chernyshevsky and Leo Tolstoy, and Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin even took part in the translation of her novel Middlemarch. Tolstoy, by the way, generally mentioned Eliot among the authors who had a significant influence on him. In addition, Eliot was close friends with other Russian writers - Ivan Turgenev and Sophia Kovalevskaya. Turgenev regarded Eliot as "one of the greatest and most sympathetic writers" of his time and considered her a "first-plan writer" (while himself a "supporting writer"). And after Eliot`s death, Kovalevskaya even published her memoirs, in which she spoke very vividly about her meetings with an English writer. But despite such a high assessment of the great Russian writers, in our time there is often a misconception that Eliot is an outdated moralizing classic. Meanwhile, Eliot`s works are not only not outdated, but despite the century and a half that separate us from Victorian England, today they have acquired a rather relevant sound. Especially prophetic is Eliot`s last novel, Daniel Deronda, written in 1876. Paradoxically, this novel, in which the Jewish theme is only one of two main storylines, is rightfully considered a classic of Zionism, and for the Jewish reader, one of the most important books of the 19th century. By the time the novel was published, Eliot was already at the height of literary fame, and each new work was an event that was talked about and written about in all newspapers and magazines. About the novel "Daniel Deronda" was written including in all Jewish newspapers and magazines - the Jewish world warmly perceived it as an ode of the great writer in defense of the Jews. London`s first rabbi, Herman Adler, lectured Jewish workers on "Daniel Deronda", a novel that had a huge impact on Emma Lazarus. However, the novel caused bewilderment among non-Jewish audiences. Eliot herself, anticipating this, wrote in correspondence with Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom`s Cabin: “... precisely because the attitude of Christians towards Jews is so meaningless and so contrary to the spirit of our religion, I felt the need to write about them ... Can there be anything more outrageous than when the so-called developed people show complete ignorance of the connection that exists between our entire civilization and the history of the people over which they refine their wit? It is possible that compassion for Jews was caused by Eliot`s interest in marginal figures forced to fight against stereotypes accepted in society. To some extent, she herself was such a figure - it was not for nothing that she had to take a man`s name as a pseudonym. However, in general, Eliot`s interest in Jewish culture - or, in the words of Himmelfarb, the writer `s "Jewish Odyssey" - began long before she wrote Daniel Deronda. Her common-law husband Lewis was a Philosemite, and her own intellectual interests have always revolved around historically significant Jewish figures - Baruch Spinoza, Rachel Varnhagen. Eliot learned Hebrew in her youth and was quite fluent in it - her Jewish education was studied by Emanuel Deutsch, a famous orientalist from the British Museum and a connoisseur of the Talmud. Despite everything, just before writing Daniel Deronda, Eliot did a tremendous job of thoroughly studying the history of the Jewish people and their current position in various European states. Formally, the novel has two main characters, Gwendoline Harlet and Daniel Deronda. The Gwendolyn line is written deeply and authentically - it is the story of a selfish but strong young woman, whose spiritual growth takes place against the backdrop of various life troubles. And yet the real hero of the novel is still Daniel Deronda. Although, it should be said, his image was perceived by many critics as too idealized, and therefore less successful and psychologically reliable. Deronda at the beginning of the novel is a prosperous young Englishman who was brought up in the family of a wealthy English lord. The lord is attached to him as to his own son, and although Deronda is tormented by ignorance of her origin, he does not for a second suggest that he may have anything to do with Jewry. The Jewish line of the novel generally begins only after 34 chapters, with the fifth book, entitled Mordechai. It was then that Deronda`s life was changed by a chance meeting with a young Jewish girl, Mira Cohen. He keeps her from committing suicide and tries to track down the girl`s relatives, long lost by her in the East End, the Jewish part of London. As a result of the search for Mira`s relatives, among the new acquaintances of Deronda, an old man named Mordechai, who is sick with consumption, turns out to be, who has a cherished dream of restoring the Jewish state. Mordechai chooses Deronda as his successor and disciple, despite the latter`s categorical refusal to admit that he has something to do with Jewishness. As a result, Deronda learns that he is also a Jew. His mother deliberately chose for him a Christian upbringing in a strange family in order to protect him from the humiliating fate of his fellow believers. Deronda is not at all burdened by his newfound Jewry - on the contrary, his origin causes him joy and pride. After Deronda confesses to Mordechai that he is a Jew, the elder dies confident that the young man will fulfill his dream of creating a state for Jews. Deronda marries Mira and they leave for Palestine. In the novel, Ashkenazi Jews are presented in a positive light, which was an innovation for the time. In the European mind, there was an idealized image of the Eastern Jew-Sephardi, who retained authenticity, and it was opposed to the Ashkenazi, who had lost its authenticity. Therefore, the novel not only "rehabilitates" the Ashkenazi Jews, but also symbolically reinforces the Ashkenazi legitimacy in relation to the Sephardim by the marriage of Mira and Deronda (a Genoese Jew). It can be said without exaggeration that such an innovative description of the Ashkenazi and Sephardic as equals laid the first brick in the building of the national Jewish revival. The main prophecy of the novel, of course, is that Deronda and Mira find themselves in Palestine about two decades before the father of Zionism, Theodor Herzl, only writes about the possibility of creating a Jewish state. Jewish life in the novel is written out with ethnographic precision, and in the scenes of the meeting of the philosophical circle, various types of Jewish intellectuals appear who express ideas characteristic of that time regarding the Jewish question. Despite the fact that Eliot quite reliably describes Jewish types with all the diversity of their opinions, it should be noted that Mordechai`s arguments against assimilation amaze the reader with their modernity even today. Eliot, like any genius, in some prophetic way foresaw the Holocaust and the Holocaust of Jewry. Although, most likely, such a prophecy was the result of her scrupulous study of Jewish history. Despite the fact that the novel is distinguished by the organic unity of all parts and characters, critics often express the opinion that the novel falls into two independent parts. In the twentieth century, some of the critics said that the novel would not have been damaged by a "surgical operation" that would have freed him from the dead weight of another, Jewish part. Jewish publishers often published the novel without the Gwendolyn section. Against this background, the thought of Harvard University professor and Yiddish specialist Ruth Weiss sounds interesting. She says that the main idea of ​​the novel connecting Gwendoline with Deronda is that by the end of the novel, Deronda acquires a blood connection with her people and the place in which he was born - unlike Gwendolyn, who does not feel a connection with that place and traditions. in which she was born and raised. By the way, when Theodor Herzl came to England in search of funds for the creation of the World Zionist Organization, one of his new acquaintances, Colonel Albert Edward Goldsmith, told him: "I am Daniel Deronda." And it became a kind of code for people sympathetic to the Zionist idea. based on materials from the site http://jewish.ru