Andromeda Book

Andromeda by Ivan Antonovich Efremov

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Ivan Antonovich Efremov

A book by Ivan Antonovich Efremov

Ivan Antonovich (Antipovich) Efremov was born in the village of Vyritsa, Tsarskoye Selo district of St.

Petersburg province in the family of a timber merchant on April 9 (22), 1907 ...

In fact, according to the record in the register, the birth year of I.

Efremov is 1908, but he is still in his early youth I "aged" myself for a year in order to facilitate the beginning of independent labor activity. Since then, in all his autobiographies, Ivan Antonovich has set the year of his birth as 1907. Nugget abilities manifested themselves early enough: at the age of four, he learned to read, at six - he got acquainted with the work of Jules Verne and recklessly fell in love with books about explorers, navigators, scientists. In 1914 the family moved to Berdyansk, where Ivan Efremov entered the gymnasium. The revolution was accompanied by a long-overdue divorce of the parents, in 1919 the mother and the children moved to Kherson, married the red commander and left with him, leaving the children to their aunt, who soon dies of typhus. Ivan nailed to the Red Army autorot, with whom the "son of the regiment" reached Perekop, and in 1921, having demobilized, he went to Petrograd with a firm intention to study and, thanks to the disinterested help of teachers, graduated from school in two and a half years. “The revolution was also my liberation from the bourgeoisie,” he said later. Studying had to be combined with earning a living. He worked as a loader, firewood saw, assistant chauffeur, and then as a chauffeur on the night shift. In 1923, Efremov passed exams for the co-pilot of coastal navigation at the Petrograd nautical classes and, after graduating from school, in the spring of 1924 left for the Far East. Young Efremov came to paleontology, having met Academician P.P.

Sushkin, who discovered this science for him and helped him take the first steps in it. Having sailed navigation in the Pacific Ocean in 1924 as a sailor, the future paleontologist returned to Leningrad and entered the University of Biology. Since the mid-20s, his life has been spent on expeditions, bringing numerous finds and discoveries. The routes of Ivan Efremov`s paleontological expeditions run along the Volga region, the Urals and Central Asia and bring many valuable finds and discoveries. And in the first half of the 30s, he took part in geological expeditions in the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. Some episodes of his expeditionary life would later be included in the stories "Diamond Pipe", "Shadow of the Past", "Loach Podlunny" and others.

In 1935, Efremov graduated from the Leningrad Mining Institute as an external student. In the same year he became a candidate, and in the spring of 1941 - a doctor of biological sciences. At this time, Ivan Antonovich already lives in Moscow, since the Paleontological Institute moved here in 1935. A monograph on osteology and anatomy of the Eotriassic labyrintodont is published in co-authorship with A.P.

Bystrov, for which the authors will subsequently be awarded honorary diplomas of the Linnean Society (England). In the 40s, Efremov developed a new branch of knowledge - taphonomy. This was the name of the doctrine of the laws of preservation of the remains of fossil organisms in the layers of sedimentary rocks. The manuscript "Taphonomy" was completed in 1943, but it was only published in 1950 ("Taphonomy and the Geological Chronicle"), in 1952 its author was awarded the State (Stalin) Prize. The new industry received general recognition only in the 70s, but Ivan Antonovich managed to successfully apply the conclusions of his science even during the expedition for the "dragon bones" in the Mongolian Gobi, which brought a wealth of material. Expedition led by the head. Department of Ancient Vertebrates of the Paleontological Institute by IA Efremov, she worked in the Mongolian People`s Republic in 1946, 1948 and 1949, and a fascinating and informative in many respects documentary story "The Road of the Winds" was written about her. During the Great Patriotic War I.

A.

Efremov begins to write his first "stories about the extraordinary", which combines science fiction and adventure. In these stories, he predicts the discovery of diamond deposits in Yakutia and holography. And with a short story "Cutty Sark" he directly influences the fate of the famous British sailing ship - now restored by enthusiasts and standing on the banks of the Thames. In the Mongolian Gobi, on an expedition for the "bones of the dragon", under the fantastic night sky, Efremov conceives a plan to create a work about the cosmic future. About the Great Ring of the worlds of the Universe and about beautiful, "insatiable in heroic deeds" people. About genuine human relationships and about the planet turned by its inhabitants into a blooming garden. Write a symphony of humanity ascending to the stars. Such a symphony was the novel "The Andromeda Nebula", published in 1957 and defining the life path of many people - from ascetics of alternative pedagogy to astronauts. The future described in the book is communist - without private property, market, professional authorities ...

But how different it was from the primitive constructions of official propaganda! Efremov (never a member of the CPSU) was able to simply show that communism is a world in which people have more worthy pursuits than "making money" or "approving party policies." The second, favorite novel of the writer, "The Razor`s Blade" became a response to the problems that arose before the country and mankind by the beginning of the 60s, when the "siege socialism" of the previous years became a thing of the past. Time imperiously demanded (and still requires!) New approaches to the management of society and to education, the development of the human sciences, the unification of all sensible forces of the planet in the struggle for nuclear disarmament and genuine socialism. All this Efremov tried to show in the form of an adventure novel "in a somewhat Haggardian taste." But the real tendencies of world development turn out to be different, more and more alarming - and by the end of the 60s the warning novel "Hour of the Bull" appears. The writer warns of impending social, environmental and moral catastrophe. In the book, the bright world of the Earth, continuing the line of the Andromeda Nebula, is opposed by the gloomy dystopia of the planet Tormans, ruled by an oligarchy. The widespread perception of this novel as a caricature of the USSR is too primitive. Undoubtedly, the writer reflected the dead-end tendencies in the development of "real socialism" (and the highest ideologists of the state perceived the novel as a "slander against Soviet reality", withdrawn from libraries and banned for reprinting for 18 years). But Efremov looked much deeper, after all, it was not in vain that the earthlings - the heroes of the Hour of the Bull never came to an unambiguous conclusion from which social system the oligarchy of Tormans arose: from “ant pseudo-socialism” or from “gangsterizing capitalism”. In 1969, in a letter to his American colleague, Ivan Antonovich speaks of "an explosion of immorality," which will be followed by "the greatest catastrophe in history in the form of a widespread technical monoculture." "Hour of the Bull" was created against the background of these disturbing thoughts. Years of overstrain of forces blew a powerful heart, and on October 5, 1972, Ivan Antonovich passed away. He did not live to see the end of the publication of his fourth novel, "Tais of Athens", dedicated to his friend and wife, Taisia ​​Iosifovna Efremova - "now and always." This book became the pinnacle of the writer`s artistic skill, “a wonderful dream for all worthwhile people,” as one of its heroes says. Efremov`s worldview is remarkable for its integrity, in which the evolutionary paleontologist complements the social thinker and artist. From primitive biological forms to the fires of the Paleolithic, and further, through the collection of pearls of thought and beauty, created by man in all eras, to the construction of a just society. And further, to the Great Ring of worlds, the ascending evolution of life goes further and further. Ivan Antonovich Efremov became the prototype of Fyodor Simeonovich Kivrin in the story of the Strugatsky brothers "Monday begins on Saturday." Complete selections of Efremov`s works: http://noogen.narod.ru/iefremov/ http://noogen.2084.ru/iefremov/ Archive of Efremov`s publications and materials about him: http://iae.newmail.ru/ Materials of Efremov readings : http://iaefremov.2084.ru/ Ivan Efremov & # 039; s page (eng.) http://www.astro.spbu.ru/staff/serg/interests/literature/liter_index.html

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