Howard Phillips Lovecraft .
In the 1920s, the American science fiction and horror magazine Supernatural Stories began publishing stories by a then-unknown author named G.F.
And, as his collaboration with the magazine became permanent, these stories began to take the form of a coherent and integral mythology, created from the literary realization of the author`s dreams and intuitive impulses.
Although outwardly he supported a completely rational and skeptical view of the universe, his experience in the land of dreams allowed him to look at spaces and entities on the other side of the world of earthly reality, and behind his high-flown and wordy prose is a vision and understanding of secret forces that are directly related to Magical Tradition.
Howard Phillips Lovecraft was born on January 20, 1890, in Providence, Rhode Island, at 454 Angell Street, the home of his maternal grandfather, Whipple W.
His parents, Winfield Scott Lovecraft and Sarah Susan Phillips, were ...
Howard Phillips Lovecraft . In the 1920s, the American science fiction and horror magazine Supernatural Stories began publishing stories by a then-unknown author named G.F. Lovecraft. And, as his collaboration with the magazine became permanent, these stories began to take the form of a coherent and integral mythology, created from the literary realization of the author`s dreams and intuitive impulses. Although outwardly he supported a completely rational and skeptical view of the universe, his experience in the land of dreams allowed him to look at spaces and entities on the other side of the world of earthly reality, and behind his high-flown and wordy prose is a vision and understanding of secret forces that are directly related to Magical Tradition. Howard Phillips Lovecraft was born on January 20, 1890, in Providence, Rhode Island, at 454 Angell Street, the home of his maternal grandfather, Whipple W. Phillips. His parents, Winfield Scott Lovecraft and Sarah Susan Phillips, were of English descent, and throughout his life Lovecraft remained a passionate Anglophile. Winfield Lovecraft, a traveling salesman, spent a lot of time away from the family home, and as a result had little or no influence on the young Lovecraft. Three years after the birth of his son, he was admitted to a psychiatric hospital, where he died in 1898 from "progressive paralysis of the mentally ill," the final stage of syphilis. As a result, Lovecraft spent the rest of his personality-forming years under the supervision of his mother and her two unmarried sisters, who completely shielded him from the hardships and needs of everyday life, but at the same time they considered the boy extremely ugly in appearance, which they constantly told him about. hurting the child. Soon, Lovecraft began to show clear signs of "otherness" - at the age of four he could read fluently and spent hours in his grandfather`s vast library studying volumes on history and mythology. His grandfather also introduced him to local folk stories and myths, which he later described in his memoirs of the imaginary New England landscapes of Arkham, Dunwich and Innsmouth. Lovecraft began attending Hope High School in Providence, but with poor health that led to long periods of absence from school, he was forced to educate himself. He preferred the company of adults, and not peers who did not like him because of his refined nature and precocious intelligence. Instead of joining their youthful amusements, he developed his own inner world of imagination, trying to compose, and at the age of 15 he created his first story "The Beast in the Cave". By 1914, he had submitted a series of articles to the United Amateur Press Agency and local newspapers, ranging from astronomy and philosophy to the occult and the supernatural; his early work was devoted to similar themes. During this time, he also became interested in epistolary communication, which became one of the main entertainments of his life. At the same time, he was associated with more than a hundred regular correspondents, and, in fact, his letters that have come down to us are much larger than his fiction in volume (according to one estimate, the total number of letters written by Lovecraft is more than 100,000). However, it was not until 1917 that writing was taken seriously by Lovecraft. The family was forced to leave their Angell Street home due to financial difficulties, and Lovecraft soon found himself unable to make a living. (In fact, he spent the best part of his life in a state of financial hardship and semi-starvation, surviving on less than $ 15 a week.) And his mother`s sanity and material conditions quickly deteriorated. In 1919, the mother was admitted to the Butler Hospital, where she died in May 1921 after a long illness. Lovecraft`s short story, Dagon, written in 1917, was published in Supernatural Tales in October 1923, the same year the magazine was published. In the same year, the writer made his first trip to New York to visit the poet Samuel Loveman and meet Sonya H. Green, a fellow member of the Amateur Press Agency. Lovecraft corresponded from 1921 with Sonya, a woman his senior by several years, and worked on correcting her own writings. Following their first meeting, their friendship developed into a more romantic relationship, and they were married on March 3, 1924. However, this new life was a great test for Lovecraft, and after only two years they parted. Lovecraft found the metropolitan area of New York unbearable, and his disgust for the city inspired him to write the story "The Horror in Red Hook." After the breakup of his marriage, Lovecraft returned to Providence, where he lived as a semi-hermit at the home of his aunt Anne Phillips Gamville. Except for travel to various parts of the country associated with antique exploration (including visits to Boston, Quebec, New Orleans, and Philadelphia), and short trips within New England to explore ancient sites (such as the prehistoric megaliths in Shootsbury, Massachusetts) for the rest of your life he remained in Providence. After returning to his hometown, Lovecraft concentrated exclusively on creativity, working all night and resting during the day with closed shutters. Going into long nocturnal wanderings, he dreamed of scenes from his childhood when he wrote his first stories; childhood, which has always fascinated an adult writer and caused nostalgia. In winter, he rarely left the borders of the house due to a pathological fear of temperatures below 70? F. Is there an anecdote telling about the time when he decided to leave the house at 30? F and instantly went to bed, in need of resuscitation. He displayed a distinct aversion to the sea, suffered from terrible headaches, and his physical appearance showed signs of malnutrition. He was also prone to extremely vivid and lucid dreams, suffering from nightmares almost every night. In his childhood, in his dreams he was visited by beings whom he called "Night Mversi". These faceless, bat-winged ghosts carried him to high, spiky mountain peaks - an archetypal landscape that in his prose called "the hideous Lang plateau." And what happened during such nocturnal events, which gave rise to many of Lovecraft`s most striking images, is often left on paper in a manner virtually identical to the “automatic writing” that took place in the prose of his poem “Nyarlathotep”. In a letter to Reinhardt Kleiner dated December 4, 1921, he writes: “Nyarlathotep is a nightmare, a true phantom of myself, who created the first paragraph that was written before I fully woke up. Recently I felt terrible - whole weeks passed without getting rid of headaches and dizziness, and for a long time three hours was the greatest limit of continuous work ... To my constant misfortunes was added an unusual eye attack that prevented me from reading the fine print - a curious tension nerves and muscles, in truth, alarming me. And this went on for weeks. In the midst of this gloom came a nightmare of nightmares - the most realistic and terrible of those I have often experienced since coming of age - whose absolute abomination and extremely oppressive atmosphere I was able, albeit imperfectly, to reflect in my written fantasy ... As I fell into the abyss, then he shouted heart-rendingly, after which the vision disappeared. I was in great pain (forehead cramps and ringing in my ears), but, obeying an unconscious impulse, I rushed to the light and desperately began to record what I saw, trying to maintain an atmosphere of unprecedented fright. When I woke up, I remembered all the events of the dream, but completely lost the unbearable sense of fear - the real sense of the presence of a disgusting stranger. Of what I just wrote down, the smallest part belonged directly to me, and after a while I stopped and doused my head with water. When I looked at the text I wrote, I was surprised by its consistency. It consisted of one paragraph of the completed manuscript, later I changed only three words ”. Lovecraft is an extremely curious case of the dissemination of "occult knowledge" through dreams, he was one of the few who was able to write effectively about the supernatural without consciously believing in the data he was transmitting. On the contrary, he categorically denied the possibility of the existence of occult phenomena, although he used their manifestations as a fictional device. However, this intellectual refutation, expressed in his letters and conversations with friends, contradicts the subjective confidence with which he described the things attested in his work (this is an indication of the dynamic dichotomy between the rational and intuitive aspects of his psyche). With the advent of subsequent stories, a hidden pattern began to form in Lovecraft`s work. The story "The Call of Cthulhu", written in 1926, reveals this design. The plot of this story suggests that at certain times, when the constellations take on a special position, some dark forces can influence sensitive people, sending them images of the "Great Old Ones", god-like aliens of extraterrestrial origin. These beings are in a different dimension or at a different vibrational level, and can enter this universe only through specific "openings" or psychic gates - a fundamental concept in many occult traditions. Cthulhu - High Priest of the Ancients, buried in the sunken city of R & # 039; Layh, where he awaits the time of their return. He is depicted as an oversized winged anthropoid with tentacles, composed of a semi-viscous substance capable of reuniting after apparent destruction at the end of the story. The narrative also testifies, using various archaeological and mythological sources, of the continued existence of a cult dedicated to the return of the Ancients; its ministers can be found ranging from the inhabitants of the South Seas to the Angakoks of Greenland and those who practice voodoo in the southern states of the United States. Lovecraft also gives a brief description of the world after the arrival of the Great Old Ones: “This time will be easy to recognize, because then people will become like the Great Old Ones - wild and free, on the other side of good and evil, abandon laws and morals, everyone will shout, kill and have fun ... Then the liberated Ancients will open them new ways to shout, kill, have fun and enjoy, and the whole earth will burn in a holocaust of ecstasy and freedom ”. There are clear similarities between this passage and the teachings of many actual secret societies of the past, including the Assassins, Gnostics, and Templars, but in particular the Law of Thelema as set forth by Lovecraft`s contemporary Aleister Crowley. The main difference is in the moral interpretation. While Lovecraft considered the ancient gods to be evil incarnate, Crowley saw this return of atavistic deities as an event fully consistent with the "succession of aeons." In the aftermath of The Call of Cthulhu, Lovecraft wrote over a dozen stories containing the central core of the interconnected mythology that would later become known as The Myths of Cthulhu. In these stories, he describes various rituals that have existed since the time of the primordial reign of the Ancients, and are preserved to this day in esoteric grimoires like the Necronomicon, with the help of which the ritual of evocation of extraterrestrial gods could be carried out. In The Case of Charles Dexter Ward, while attributing a single source to many differing branches of the occult faith, Lovecraft hints that the true roots of the magical arts lie in the ritual worship of entities beyond dimensions. These ceremonies have been observed for centuries and have been misinterpreted in terms of black magic and devil worship. It should be noted here that Lovecraft never used the term "Myths of Cthulhu", which was coined by his protégé August Derleth after the writer`s death. Cthulhu is just one representative of a whole pantheon of deities, which includes Yog-Sothoth, Azathoth, Nyarlathotep, Shub-Niggurat and others. The manifestations of these entities vary from story to story. Sometimes they are depicted as supernatural, while other times they appear as space aliens in specific physical guises. An exceptional deity can be mentioned in both ways within the same text. By comparing the mentions of each of the deities in the stories of "Myths", one can restore their relationship and hierarchy, explore the relationship between the imaginary pantheon of Lovecraft and the religious and mythological systems that existed in the past. Basically, the gods of the Myths of Cthulhu are divided into two groups - the Great Old Ones and the Most Old Gods, of the latter, only Nodens has a name. Between the Ultimate Chaos and the Physical World are Yog-Sothoth and Azathoth, who share power over the lower deities, subhuman races and people. Yog-Sothoth is the external manifestation of the Primordial Chaos, the gate through which those who exist outside must enter. In The Dunwich Horror, Lovecraft writes: “The Ancients were, the Ancients are, and the Ancients will be. Not in the spaces that we know about, but in between. They walk imperturbable and primordial, dimensionless and invisible to us. Yog-Sothoth knows the gate. Yog-Sothoth is the gate. Yog-Sothoth is both the key and the guardian of the gates. Past, present, future, everything is in Yog-Sothoth. He knows where the Ancients came from in the past, and knows where they will come from in the future ”. The law of its existence is parallel to the concept of the universe, described in Hindu and Eastern mysticism, unlimited being and essence, All-in-One and One-in-All. A specific physical form as such cannot be attributed to Yog-Sothoth, although in The Dunwich Horror his offspring from mating with Lavinia Watley is compared to an octopus, centipede or spider. The formula for the evocation of Yog-Sothoth is given in The Case of Charles Dexter Ward, where it forms part of the necromantic practices of the sorcerer Joseph Curven. British occultist Kenneth Grant described Yog-Sothoth as the embodiment of "the highest and ultimate blasphemy in the form of the Aeon (yogi or south) Set (Sothoth = Set + Thoth)" . On the Kabbalistic Tree of Life, Yog-Sothoth can be correlated with Da & # 039; at, the seventh (or "hidden") Sephira, and identified with Choronzon, the Guardian of the Abyss, whom Crowley called "the very first and most deadly of the forces of evil," whose number is 333, the number of Chaos and Dispersion. From the side of the elements, Yog-Sothoth can be considered as an absolute manifestation of Fire; magically - refer to the active Spirit. Its main residence is in the extreme South. This universe is ruled by Azathoth: "a blind idiot god ... the Lord of All Things, surrounded by a horde of insane and amorphous dancers, lulled by the high and monotonous whistle of a demonic flute held by the paws of one who cannot be given a name" . While Yog-Sothoth contains the space of infinity, Azathoth symbolizes the opposite principle: he rules in the heart of Chaos, the central point of the universe, saturated with the influence of Yog-Sothoth. Their relationship can be thought of as a reconciliation of infinite expansion and infinite contraction. In physical terms, Azathoth manifests itself as a colossal destructive energy inherent in an atomic particle that is released through nuclear fusion. He is the complete opposite of creation, an extremely negative aspect of the Fire Release. Magically, it refers to a passive Spirit. Amorphous dancers, subject to the idiot god Azathoth and accompanying him at the throne of Chaos, belong to the "Other Gods". Their soul and messenger is Nyarlathotep, "Creeping Chaos", who is the mediator between the Ancients and their human followers. His avatar manifests as a black-clad man with jet-black skin, but otherwise white. In this form, he can be identified as the "Black Man of the Witch`s Sabbat" - an incarnation usually associated with Satan. Seventeenth-century witchcraft treatises depict him as a tar-skinned creature wearing a long black priestly robe and a conical hat - a description supported by human testimony in both Europe and New England by Lovecraft. The physical appearance of Nyarlathotep is also strikingly similar to the appearance of that astral entity, Aivaz, who dictated the text known as the "Book of the Law" to Aleister Crowley, thus marking the beginning of the Aeon of Horus. Crowley describes Aivaz as "a tall, dark man, in his thirties, with the face of a savage master and veiled eyes so that their gaze does not destroy what they saw." According to Grant, the cult of Aivaz "can be traced back to a period inspired by the eternal Draconian Tradition of Egypt, which lived in dark dynasties, whose monuments were filled with the ashes of the opponents of the ancient cult." It is interesting to note that Lovecraft himself pointed out the connection between the worship of Nyarlathotep precisely with "pre-dynastic Egypt" in the prose poem of the same name. The element of Nyarlathotep is Ether, a means of communication in interstellar space (or, in Lovecraft`s terminology, "Attentive Void"). Shub-Niggurath - "Black Goat of the Forests with the Legion of Young" - a name meaning the reproduction of creatures on Earth. He is the Horned God of the pagan farming communities of the ancient world, symbolizing abundance and sexual energy. In Greek mythology, his archetype is Pan, a half-man, half-goat. At the time of the change of paganism to Christianity, the image of Pan became the prototype for the Christian devil and was associated with the practice of Satanism, although the worship of the Horned God is older than Christianity by at least a thousand years. In 1919, Aleister Crowley published a poem entitled "A Hymn to Pan," awakening the flow of sexual energy, as it should be in ceremonial magic, and which he often incorporated into his own magical practice. The exclamation “Io, Pan!”, The concluding poem corresponds to the exclamation “Ya! Shub-Niggurath! ”Found in several of Lovecraft`s stories about the worship of a goat-like god. This correspondence raises the question of Lovecraft`s close acquaintance with Crowley`s work. He could read The Equinox (a collection of Crowley`s essays) in the Harvard Library, which received a copy in December 1917, where Anthem to Pan is the first. However, aside from occasional mentions of Crowley in one of Lovecraft`s letters identifying him with a character in Wakefield`s story , it seems unlikely that Lovecraft knew anything more about The Great Beast than rumors of its reputation. The Shub-Niggurat element is the Earth, symbolized by the sign of Taurus. Its abode is the North. Hastur - "the voice of the Ancients" - the deity of the elements of Air or the vacuum of outer space. Hastur`s abode on earth is East, and his sign is Aquarius. The god Dagon was taken by Lovecraft from the Hebrew texts, in which he appears as the god of the Philistines. In the Myths, he is the Source of the Seas, the aquatic equivalent of Shub-Niggurat, and also the Lord of the amphibians of the Deep Ones. His element is Water, and his number is 777. Cthulhu is referred to as the "High Priest of the Great Old Ones." His other names are “He who will appear”, “Lord of R & # 039; Layha” and “Lord of the Water Abyss”. Cthulhu is the initiator of dreams sent to humanity from the crypt city of R & # 039; Layha. The formula for addressing him is given by Lovecraft in a curious ritual phrase of inhuman origin, which is sung by fans of the cult of Cthulhu: "P & # 039; nglui mglv & # 039; naf Cthulhu R & # 039; Layh vga & # 039; impudent ftagn." Cthulhu corresponds to the Abyss of the subconscious or sleeping mind and is astrologically associated with the sign of Scorpio. In ceremonies, it refers to the West (Amenta or the Abode of the Dead in the ancient Egyptian religion), its geographical location is P & # 039; Layh in the South Pacific Ocean (exact coordinates can be found in the story "Call of Cthulhu"). As already mentioned, Nodens is the only one of the Old Gods who has a name. Lovecraft does not provide any further information about him. The sign of the Ancient Gods was depicted in the form of a straight pentagram, into which an eye-shaped symbol is inscribed. The rays of the pentagram symbolize the four elements plus Spirit (the fifth or "hidden" element). United, they balance the single element of nature of the Ancients, hinting that the Ancient Gods can exist at a higher level. "Eye" refers to the opening of the ajna chakra, or the Third Eye, which symbolizes the ability of astral vision. The entities described above are called "gods" because they are worshiped by innumerable hordes of other entities, both humans and non-humans. Among them are the "Older Races", those who inhabited the Earth in prehistoric times, and whose invisible presence is the reason for the existence of people. The first of these races to visit Earth were the "Ancients" who descended from the stars and built a city of black stone in Antarctica. They are depicted as star-shaped creatures with tubular bodies covered with tentacles and cilia. Their servants are mindless, protoplasmic Shoggoths. In Ridges of Madness, Lovecraft describes the wars between the Ancients and other extraterrestrial races at the dawn of time, including the Offspring of Cthulhu (the winged cephalopods that built the sunken city of P & # 039; Lich). The Deep Ones described by Lovecraft in Shadows Over Innsmouth are Dagon`s half-human aquatic servants. In the past, they dared to venture out onto the land and mate with humans, spawning degenerate offspring that possessed fish-like physical traits known as the Innsmouth Gaze, which emerged after New England port residents interbred with the Deep Ones. The story "Whisperer in the Dark" tells about the third group of non-human beings from the planet Yuggoth (or Pluto). They are essentially mushroom-like, crab-like creatures that Lovecraft associates with Mi-Go, or the Himalayan Bigfoot. The last type that Lovecraft describes in detail is the "Great Race", which took over Australia about 150,000 years ago. Unlike the other aforementioned races, it appears that this group was indigenous to Earth. They were cone-shaped creatures with heads and organs attached to stretchable limbs. According to the story "Shadow from Timelessness", the Great Race, capable of exchanging consciousness with any form of life, has accumulated vast knowledge about the various cultures that inhabit the universe. This is where the pantheon of non-human beings ends. The worship of the Great Old Ones is continued on earth by secret societies, whose traditions and rituals preserve the hidden knowledge of these Ancient Races. Lovecraft attests to three such cults: the Cult of Cthulhu, the Esoteric Order of Dagon based in Innsmouth (actually Newbaryport, Massachusetts), and the Starry Wisdom Sect. In The Wanderer of Darkness, Lovecraft describes how this latter sect held meetings in a church in Providence, where its followers communicated with the avatar of Nyarlathotep through an object known as the Radiant Trapezohedron. The name "Starry Wisdom" again brings us back to Crowley and the "Argentum Astrum" or "Order of the Silver Star", which he founded in 1907. The "Silver Star" symbolizes Sirius, from where the magical stream flows, the representative of which on Earth is the essence of Aivaz. Another contemporary of Lovecraft, whose writings contain many similarities and correspondences with his works, is Elena Petrovna Blavatskaya, a well-known occultist, theosophist and author of The Secret Doctrine. This vast work is essentially an extended commentary on the Book of Dzyan, a fragment of the Mani Kumburm (scriptures of the Dzhugari, an ancient race that inhabited the mountainous regions of northern Tibet). These texts begin to tell how the earth was once ruled by the aforementioned chaotic entities that crossed the abyss to come from another universe, simultaneously preceding the appearance of man, and continue to tell how they were expelled from this universe by the intervention of forces, allies of Order ... This cosmic story, detailing the subsequent battles with other primordial life forms, shows obvious parallels with what is described in the Mythos of Cthulhu. In a letter dated March 25, 1933, Lovecraft writes: “the other day my friend from New Orleans E. Hoffman Price ... discovered an extremely picturesque cycle of myths about the early eras of the earth, the lost continents of Kush (Atlantis) and Shalmali (Lemuria), about the population of the earth arriving from other planets. It speaks of a secret book in some eastern shrine, fragments of which are older than the land itself ... Price assures me that this is genuine folklore and promises to send more detailed information ”. In another letter,  Lovecraft discovers the identity of that secret book and the Book of Dzyan and identifies the eastern shrine with Shambhala. Madame Blavatsky died on May 8, 1891 of kidney inflammation, the same disease that affected Lovecraft and was one of the reasons for his early death. An explanation of many of the "occult" correspondences found in Lovecraft`s work is given in Kenneth Grant`s The Typhonian Trilogy. He suggests that Lovecraft`s Necronomicon grimoire does exist in Akasha, or in the space of the Astral Light. This ethereal storehouse surrounds the earth and retains in its structure the imprint of every event that has occurred since the formation of the planet. It can be accessed by people with certain psychic abilities and perceiving visions sent by someone else`s will. Blavatsky wrote The Book of Dzyan and Crowley wrote The Book of the Qliphoth Elements under the influence of the Akashic chronicles. Could it be that Lovecraft was subconsciously given the Book of Dead Names from the same source? In creating the Myths of Cthulhu, Lovecraft drew on a wide range of sources, from genuine occult tradition to literary material related to it. In his essay "Supernatural Horror in Literature," he mentions academic works such as Fraser`s Golden Bough and Margaret Murray`s Witch Cult in Western Europe, as well as authentic grimoires such as The Keys of Solomon, The Book of Enoch by John Dee , or "Liber Logaeth". He also studied Waite`s collection of medieval texts, The Book of Black Magic and Pacts, The Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Sage, translated by MacGregor Mathers, and The Wonders of the Invisible World by Cotton Mathers about the events associated with witchcraft that occurred in 1692 in Salem. ... The titles of these books are reflected in the grimoires created by Lovecraft himself and other authors of the Myths of Cthulhu: "De Vermis Misteriis" ("Mysteries of the Worm"), "Pnakotic Manuscripts", "Les Cultes des Ghoules" ("Cults of Ghouls") and "Book of Abon" ... However, the most significant of these fictional tomes is Lovecraft`s own creation, Al Azif, by the mad Arab Abdul Al Hazred, or, to use its Latin name, the Necronomicon. This name, which came to Lovecraft in a dream, translates as follows: NEKROS - corpse, NOMOS - law, EIKON - image. Hence, "Image (or Description) of the Law of the Dead". In a pamphlet entitled The Chronology of the Necronomicon, published in 1936, Lovecraft gives the alleged history of this damned book. According to this essay, the original text was transcribed by the poet Alhazred in 730 BC in Damascus. The name "Al Azif" denotes the nocturnal sounds of insects, according to Arab beliefs, the howling of demons. (According to kabbalistic numerology, his number is 129, which means, among other things, "the space of hungry creatures" and corresponds to the Egyptian word "a tem", "to destroy.") Alhazred spent ten years alone in the vast desert in the south of Arabia, Roba - El - Ehaliyeh or "Empty Space" of the ancients, which was rumored to be inhabited by evil spirits. He explored the ruins of Babylon and the underground tombs of Memphis, and also visited a certain forbidden city. Beneath the remains of an unnamed desert city, he discovered the chronicles of a race older than humanity, and wrote them down in Asif. In 950 AD, the book was secretly translated into Greek by Theodore Phylet from Constantinople under the title Necronomicon, and in 1228 Olaus Wormius translated it into Latin. This translation has been published twice - the first time in Gothic script in the 15th century in Germany, the second time in the 17th century in Spain. Soon after the Latin translation appeared, the Necronomicon was banned by Pope Gregory IX, and not a trace of the Greek copy remained after the burning of the library in Salem in 1692. Dee`s translation has never been published and exists only as recovered fragments of the original manuscript. Of the two currently extant Latin texts, one is believed to be in the British Museum and the other in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. A 17th-century edition is in the Widener Library at Harvard. Numerous other copies of this book, banned by the authorities of most countries and all branches of organized religion, are also likely to exist. The mention of the name Dee in connection with the "Necronomicon" is noteworthy, since he was one of those few adepts of magic of the past who could provide us with the true facts of communication with non-human beings. Dr. John Dee was the astrologer of Queen Elizabeth I, who collaborated with many seers and connoisseurs of spirit vision, the most talented of whom was the Irishman Sir Edward Kelly. With the help of the magic mirror of the Maya Indians, Kelly began to contact with certain spirits, communicating through it a series of magical "invocations" or keys in a language called "Enochian". This language has been studied and analyzed by many historians who confirm that it is truly a genuine and consistent idiom, unlike any other language that exists today. Even more surprising is that in the recently deciphered passages of the Book of Enoch, words were found very similar to the names of the Great Old Ones from the Myths of Cthulhu. Since 1930, Lovecraft from time to time convinced those with whom he corresponded that as soon as he was about to quit composing, something compels him to continue creating new works. In 1935 (a year after the completion of his last story "The Shadow From Timelessness") he was diagnosed with a disease that was finally diagnosed in 1937 as bowel cancer. By this time, the disease had spread to the whole body. Lovecraft was admitted to Jane Brown Memorial Hospital, where he died on March 15, 1937 at the age of 46. Three days later, he was buried in the family plot of the Swat Point Cemetary. After Lovecraft`s death, a friend of the writer August Derleth founded Arkham House to save his work from the obscurity of the cheap magazines in which Lovecraft`s stories first appeared, and to bring his writings to the attention of a wider audience. (Throughout Lovecraft`s life, only one of his short stories, The Shadow Over Innsmouth, appeared in book form, published by a small private publishing house.) In 1939, Arkham House published his first collection of stories, The Outsider and the Others. Since,many authors have contributed to the growing chronicle of the Myths of Cthulhu, adding their own deities to the pantheon and adding new eerie tomes to the list of blasphemous grimoires. Many of these authors are people with whom Lovecraft has personally corresponded: Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Frank Belknap Long, Robert Bloch, and Derlet himself. Later, elements of the Myths of Cthulhu were used in the works of Cohn Wilson, Ramsey Campbell and Brian Lumley. "Myths" have also been adopted for practical use by some modern magical and occult groups and organizations. Anton LaVey, head of the California-based Church of Satan, published his book Satanic Rituals in 1972, in which he devoted an entire chapter to Lovecraft`s metaphysics, including detailed descriptions of two Lovecraftian rituals, the Nine Angles Ceremony and the Invocation to Cthulhu. ... These rituals were reproduced in the original language of the Necronomicon and translated into English by La Vey`s comrade, Satanist Michael Aquino . Another group using Lovecraft elements in their practice is the Cult of the Black Serpent or "La Couleuvre Noir", voodoo devotees who combine left-hand path rituals with archetypes from the Cthulhu Myths. Their leader, Michel Berthieu - one of the leaders of the Ordo Templi Orientis Antiqua and its offshoot, the Monastery of the Seven Rays - was ordained a Gnostic voodoo master in Haiti in 1963. In Shadow Cults, exploring modern voodo