The Awakening / The Resurrection

The Awakening / The Resurrection by Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy

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Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy

A book by Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy

Tolstoy Lev Nikolaevich (09.09.1828 - 20.11.1910). Born in the Yasnaya Polyana estate. Among the ancestors of the writer on the paternal side is an associate of Peter I - P.A.Tolstoy, who was one of the first in Russia to receive the title of count. A participant in the Patriotic War of 1812 was the father of the writer gr. N.

I.

Tolstoy. On the maternal side, Tolstoy belonged to the family of the Volkonsky princes, related by kinship with the Trubetskoy, Golitsyn, Odoevsky, Lykov and other noble families. On his mother`s side, Tolstoy was a relative of A.S.

Pushkin. When Tolstoy was nine years old, his father took him to Moscow for the first time, the impressions of the meeting with which were vividly conveyed by the future writer in the children`s essay "The Kremlin". Moscow is here called "the greatest and most populous city in Europe", the walls of which "saw the shame and defeat of the invincible Napoleonic regiments." The first period of the Moscow life of young Tolstoy lasted less than four years. He was orphaned early, losing first his mother and then his father. With his sister and three brothers, young Tolstoy moved to Kazan. Here lived one of my father`s sisters, who became their guardian. Living in Kazan, Tolstoy spent two and a half years preparing to enter the university, where he studied from 1844, first at the oriental, and then at the law faculty. He studied Turkish and Tatar languages ​​with the famous Turkologist Professor Kazembek. In his mature period, the writer was fluent in English, French and German; read in Italian, Polish, Czech and Serbian; knew Greek, Latin, Ukrainian, Tatar, Church Slavonic; studied Hebrew, Turkish, Dutch, Bulgarian and other languages. Classes in government programs and textbooks burdened Tolstoy the student. He was carried away by independent work on a historical theme and, leaving the university, left Kazan for Yasnaya Polyana, which he received through the division of his father`s inheritance. Then he went to Moscow, where at the end of 1850 he began his writing career: an unfinished story from a gypsy life (the manuscript has not survived) and a description of one day he lived ("The Story of Yesterday"). At the same time, the story "Childhood" was started. Soon Tolstoy decided to go to the Caucasus, where his older brother, Nikolai Nikolaevich, an artillery officer, served in the army. Having entered the army as a cadet, he later passed the exam for a junior officer`s rank. The writer`s impressions of the Caucasian War were reflected in the stories "Raid" (1853), "Cutting the Forest" (1855), "Demoted" (1856), in the story "Cossacks" (1852-1863). In the Caucasus, the story "Childhood" was completed, in 1852 published in the journal "Sovremennik". When the Crimean War began, Tolstoy transferred from the Caucasus to the Danube Army, which was operating against the Turks, and then to Sevastopol, besieged by the combined forces of England, France and Turkey. Commanding a battery on the 4th bastion, Tolstoy was awarded the Order of Anna and medals "For the Defense of Sevastopol" and "In Memory of the War of 1853-1856." More than once Tolstoy was presented for the award with the battle of St.

George`s Cross, but he never received the "George". In the army, Tolstoy writes a number of projects - on the reorganization of artillery batteries and the creation of rifle-rifled rifled-rifled rifle-mounted rifle battalions, on the reorganization of the entire Russian army. Together with a group of officers of the Crimean Army, Tolstoy intended to publish a journal "Soldier`s Bulletin" ("Military Leaflet"), but its publication was not authorized by Emperor Nicholas I.

In autumn 1856 he retired and soon went on a six-month trip abroad, visiting France, Switzerland , Italy and Germany. In 1859, Tolstoy opened a school for peasant children in Yasnaya Polyana, and then helped open more than 20 schools in the surrounding villages. To direct their activities along the right, from his point of view, path, he published the pedagogical journal "Yasnaya Polyana" (1862). In order to study the organization of school affairs in foreign countries, the writer went abroad for the second time in 1860. After the manifesto of 1861, Tolstoy became one of the first call world mediators who sought to help the peasants resolve their land disputes with the landlords. Soon in Yasnaya Polyana, when Tolstoy was away, the gendarmes searched in search of a secret printing house, which the writer allegedly started after communicating with A.I.

Herzen in London. Tolstoy had to close the school and stop publishing a pedagogical journal. In total, he penned eleven articles on school and pedagogy ("On public education", "Upbringing and education", "On social activities in the field of public education" and others). In them, he described in detail the experience of his work with students ("Yasnaya Polyanskaya school for the months of November and December", "On methods of teaching literacy", "Who should learn to write from, our peasant children or we peasant children"). Tolstoy as a teacher demanded a rapprochement between school and life, sought to put it at the service of the needs of the people, and for this to activate the processes of education and upbringing, to develop the creative abilities of children. At the same time, already at the beginning of his career, Tolstoy becomes a supervised writer. One of the first works of the writer were the stories "Childhood", "Adolescence" and "Youth", "Youth" (which, however, was not written). As conceived by the author, they were to compose the novel "Four Epochs of Development". In the early 1860s. the order of life of Tolstoy, his way of life, is established for decades. In 1862 he married the daughter of a Moscow doctor, Sofya Andreevna Bers. The writer is working on the novel War and Peace (1863-1869). After completing War and Peace, Tolstoy studied materials about Peter I and his time for several years. However, having written several chapters of the "Peter`s" novel, Tolstoy abandoned his plan. In the early 1870s. the writer was again carried away by pedagogy. He put a lot of work into the creation of "ABC", and then "New ABC". At the same time he compiled "Books for Reading", where he included many of his stories. In the spring of 1873, Tolstoy began and four years later finished work on a great novel about modernity, naming it after the main character - Anna Karenina. The spiritual crisis experienced by Tolstoy at the end of 1870 - early. 1880, ended with a turning point in his worldview. In Confessions (1879-1882), the writer speaks of a revolution in his views, the meaning of which he saw in a break with the ideology of the noble class and going over to the side of the "common working people." At the beginning of 1880. Tolstoy moved with his family from Yasnaya Polyana to Moscow, taking care of educating his growing children. In 1882, a census of the Moscow population took place, in which the writer took part. He saw the inhabitants of the city slums up close and described their terrible life in an article on the census and in the treatise "So What Should We Do?" (1882-1886). In them the writer made the main conclusion: "...

You can`t live like that, you can`t live like that, you can`t!" "Confession" and "So what should we do?" represented works in which Tolstoy acted both as an artist and as a publicist, as a deep psychologist and a daring sociologist-analyst. Later, this kind of works - according to the genre of journalistic, but including artistic scenes and paintings saturated with elements of imagery - will take a large place in his work. In these and subsequent years, Tolstoy also wrote religious and philosophical works: "Criticism of dogmatic theology", "What is my faith?", "Union, translation and study of the four Gospels", "The Kingdom of God is within you." In them, the writer not only showed a change in his religious and moral views, but also subjected to a critical revision the main dogmas and principles of the teaching of the official church. In the middle of 1880. Tolstoy and his associates founded the Posrednik publishing house in Moscow, which printed books and pictures for the people. The first of Tolstoy`s works, printed for the "common" people, was the story "How People Live". In it, as in many other works of this cycle, the writer made extensive use of not only folklore subjects, but also expressive means of oral creativity. Tolstoy`s folk stories are thematically and stylistically related to his plays for folk theaters and, most of all, the drama The Power of Darkness (1886), which captures the tragedy of the post-reform village, where age-old patriarchal orders were crumbling under the “power of money”. In the 1880s. Tolstoy`s novels The Death of Ivan Ilyich and Kholstomer (The History of the Horse) and The Kreutzer Sonata (1887-1889) appeared. In it, as well as in the story "The Devil" (1889-1890) and the story "Father Sergius" (1890-1898), the problems of love and marriage, the purity of family relations are posed. On the basis of social and psychological contrast, Tolstoy`s story "The Boss and the Worker" (1895) is built, stylistically connected with the cycle of his folk stories written in the 80s. Five years earlier, Tolstoy had written the comedy Fruits of Enlightenment for a "home play". It also shows "owners" and "workers": noble landowners living in the city and peasants who came from a hungry village, deprived of land. The images of the first are given satirically, the second is portrayed by the author as intelligent and positive people, but in some scenes they are also "presented" in an ironic light. All these works of the writer are united by the idea of ​​the inevitable and close in time "denouement" of social contradictions, about replacing the obsolete social "order". "What the denouement will be, I do not know," wrote Tolstoy in 1892, "but that the matter is approaching it and that life cannot continue in such forms, I am sure." This idea inspired the largest work of the entire work of "late" Tolstoy - the novel "Resurrection" (1889-1899). Less than ten years separate "Anna Karenina" from "War and Peace". "Resurrection" is separated from "Anna Karenina" by two decades. And although much distinguishes the third novel from the two previous ones, they are united by a truly epic scale in the depiction of life, the ability to "match" individual human destinies with the fate of the people in the narrative. Tolstoy himself pointed to the unity that exists between his novels: he said that "Resurrection" was written in the "old manner," meaning, first of all, the epic "manner" in which "War and Peace" and "Anna Karenina were written.

". "Resurrection" was the last novel in the writer`s work. At the beginning of 1900. The Holy Synod Tolstoy was excommunicated from the Orthodox Church. In the last decade of his life, the writer worked on the novella "Hadji Murad" (1896-1904), in which he sought to compare "the two poles of imperious absolutism" - the European, personified by Nicholas I, and the Asian, personified by Shamil. At the same time, Tolstoy creates one of his best plays - "The Living Corpse". Her hero - a kind-hearted, gentle, conscientious Fedya Protasov leaves the family, breaks off relations with his usual environment, falls to the "bottom" and in the courthouse, unable to bear the lies, pretense, and pharisaism of "respectable" people, with a pistol shot at himself suicide. The article "I Can`t Be Silent" written in 1908, in which he protested against the repressions against the participants in the events of 1905–1907, sounded sharply. The stories of the writer "After the ball", "For what?" Belong to the same period. Weighed down by the way of life in Yasnaya Polyana, Tolstoy more than once planned and did not dare to leave her for a long time. But he could no longer live according to the principle "together-apart" and on the night of October 28 (November 10) secretly left Yasnaya Polyana. On the way, he fell ill with pneumonia and had to stop at the small station Astapovo (now Lev Tolstoy), where he died. On November 10 (23), 1910, the writer was buried in Yasnaya Polyana, in the forest, on the edge of a ravine, where in childhood he and his brother were looking for a "green stick" that kept the "secret" of how to make all people happy. Source: Russian writers. Bibliographic Dictionary. T2. M., Enlightenment. 1990.S.

295

The Awakening / The Resurrection PDF

Tolstoy Lev Nikolaevich (09.09.1828 - 20.11.1910). Born in the Yasnaya Polyana estate. Among the ancestors of the writer on the paternal side is an associate of Peter I - P.A.Tolstoy, who was one of the first in Russia to receive the title of count. A participant in the Patriotic War of 1812 was the father of the writer gr. N. I. Tolstoy. On the maternal side, Tolstoy belonged to the family of the Volkonsky princes, related by kinship with the Trubetskoy, Golitsyn, Odoevsky, Lykov and other noble families. On his mother`s side, Tolstoy was a relative of A.S. Pushkin. When Tolstoy was nine years old, his father took him to Moscow for the first time, the impressions of the meeting with which were vividly conveyed by the future writer in the children`s essay "The Kremlin". Moscow is here called "the greatest and most populous city in Europe", the walls of which "saw the shame and defeat of the invincible Napoleonic regiments." The first period of the Moscow life of young Tolstoy lasted less than four years. He was orphaned early, losing first his mother and then his father. With his sister and three brothers, young Tolstoy moved to Kazan. Here lived one of my father`s sisters, who became their guardian. Living in Kazan, Tolstoy spent two and a half years preparing to enter the university, where he studied from 1844, first at the oriental, and then at the law faculty. He studied Turkish and Tatar languages ​​with the famous Turkologist Professor Kazembek. In his mature period, the writer was fluent in English, French and German; read in Italian, Polish, Czech and Serbian; knew Greek, Latin, Ukrainian, Tatar, Church Slavonic; studied Hebrew, Turkish, Dutch, Bulgarian and other languages. Classes in government programs and textbooks burdened Tolstoy the student. He was carried away by independent work on a historical theme and, leaving the university, left Kazan for Yasnaya Polyana, which he received through the division of his father`s inheritance. Then he went to Moscow, where at the end of 1850 he began his writing career: an unfinished story from a gypsy life (the manuscript has not survived) and a description of one day he lived ("The Story of Yesterday"). At the same time, the story "Childhood" was started. Soon Tolstoy decided to go to the Caucasus, where his older brother, Nikolai Nikolaevich, an artillery officer, served in the army. Having entered the army as a cadet, he later passed the exam for a junior officer`s rank. The writer`s impressions of the Caucasian War were reflected in the stories "Raid" (1853), "Cutting the Forest" (1855), "Demoted" (1856), in the story "Cossacks" (1852-1863). In the Caucasus, the story "Childhood" was completed, in 1852 published in the journal "Sovremennik". When the Crimean War began, Tolstoy transferred from the Caucasus to the Danube Army, which was operating against the Turks, and then to Sevastopol, besieged by the combined forces of England, France and Turkey. Commanding a battery on the 4th bastion, Tolstoy was awarded the Order of Anna and medals "For the Defense of Sevastopol" and "In Memory of the War of 1853-1856." More than once Tolstoy was presented for the award with the battle of St. George`s Cross, but he never received the "George". In the army, Tolstoy writes a number of projects - on the reorganization of artillery batteries and the creation of rifle-rifled rifled-rifled rifle-mounted rifle battalions, on the reorganization of the entire Russian army. Together with a group of officers of the Crimean Army, Tolstoy intended to publish a journal "Soldier`s Bulletin" ("Military Leaflet"), but its publication was not authorized by Emperor Nicholas I. In autumn 1856 he retired and soon went on a six-month trip abroad, visiting France, Switzerland , Italy and Germany. In 1859, Tolstoy opened a school for peasant children in Yasnaya Polyana, and then helped open more than 20 schools in the surrounding villages. To direct their activities along the right, from his point of view, path, he published the pedagogical journal "Yasnaya Polyana" (1862). In order to study the organization of school affairs in foreign countries, the writer went abroad for the second time in 1860. After the manifesto of 1861, Tolstoy became one of the first call world mediators who sought to help the peasants resolve their land disputes with the landlords. Soon in Yasnaya Polyana, when Tolstoy was away, the gendarmes searched in search of a secret printing house, which the writer allegedly started after communicating with A.I. Herzen in London. Tolstoy had to close the school and stop publishing a pedagogical journal. In total, he penned eleven articles on school and pedagogy ("On public education", "Upbringing and education", "On social activities in the field of public education" and others). In them, he described in detail the experience of his work with students ("Yasnaya Polyanskaya school for the months of November and December", "On methods of teaching literacy", "Who should learn to write from, our peasant children or we peasant children"). Tolstoy as a teacher demanded a rapprochement between school and life, sought to put it at the service of the needs of the people, and for this to activate the processes of education and upbringing, to develop the creative abilities of children. At the same time, already at the beginning of his career, Tolstoy becomes a supervised writer. One of the first works of the writer were the stories "Childhood", "Adolescence" and "Youth", "Youth" (which, however, was not written). As conceived by the author, they were to compose the novel "Four Epochs of Development". In the early 1860s. the order of life of Tolstoy, his way of life, is established for decades. In 1862 he married the daughter of a Moscow doctor, Sofya Andreevna Bers. The writer is working on the novel War and Peace (1863-1869). After completing War and Peace, Tolstoy studied materials about Peter I and his time for several years. However, having written several chapters of the "Peter`s" novel, Tolstoy abandoned his plan. In the early 1870s. the writer was again carried away by pedagogy. He put a lot of work into the creation of "ABC", and then "New ABC". At the same time he compiled "Books for Reading", where he included many of his stories. In the spring of 1873, Tolstoy began and four years later finished work on a great novel about modernity, naming it after the main character - Anna Karenina. The spiritual crisis experienced by Tolstoy at the end of 1870 - early. 1880, ended with a turning point in his worldview. In Confessions (1879-1882), the writer speaks of a revolution in his views, the meaning of which he saw in a break with the ideology of the noble class and going over to the side of the "common working people." At the beginning of 1880. Tolstoy moved with his family from Yasnaya Polyana to Moscow, taking care of educating his growing children. In 1882, a census of the Moscow population took place, in which the writer took part. He saw the inhabitants of the city slums up close and described their terrible life in an article on the census and in the treatise "So What Should We Do?" (1882-1886). In them the writer made the main conclusion: "... You can`t live like that, you can`t live like that, you can`t!" "Confession" and "So what should we do?" represented works in which Tolstoy acted both as an artist and as a publicist, as a deep psychologist and a daring sociologist-analyst. Later, this kind of works - according to the genre of journalistic, but including artistic scenes and paintings saturated with elements of imagery - will take a large place in his work. In these and subsequent years, Tolstoy also wrote religious and philosophical works: "Criticism of dogmatic theology", "What is my faith?", "Union, translation and study of the four Gospels", "The Kingdom of God is within you." In them, the writer not only showed a change in his religious and moral views, but also subjected to a critical revision the main dogmas and principles of the teaching of the official church. In the middle of 1880. Tolstoy and his associates founded the Posrednik publishing house in Moscow, which printed books and pictures for the people. The first of Tolstoy`s works, printed for the "common" people, was the story "How People Live". In it, as in many other works of this cycle, the writer made extensive use of not only folklore subjects, but also expressive means of oral creativity. Tolstoy`s folk stories are thematically and stylistically related to his plays for folk theaters and, most of all, the drama The Power of Darkness (1886), which captures the tragedy of the post-reform village, where age-old patriarchal orders were crumbling under the “power of money”. In the 1880s. Tolstoy`s novels The Death of Ivan Ilyich and Kholstomer (The History of the Horse) and The Kreutzer Sonata (1887-1889) appeared. In it, as well as in the story "The Devil" (1889-1890) and the story "Father Sergius" (1890-1898), the problems of love and marriage, the purity of family relations are posed. On the basis of social and psychological contrast, Tolstoy`s story "The Boss and the Worker" (1895) is built, stylistically connected with the cycle of his folk stories written in the 80s. Five years earlier, Tolstoy had written the comedy Fruits of Enlightenment for a "home play". It also shows "owners" and "workers": noble landowners living in the city and peasants who came from a hungry village, deprived of land. The images of the first are given satirically, the second is portrayed by the author as intelligent and positive people, but in some scenes they are also "presented" in an ironic light. All these works of the writer are united by the idea of ​​the inevitable and close in time "denouement" of social contradictions, about replacing the obsolete social "order". "What the denouement will be, I do not know," wrote Tolstoy in 1892, "but that the matter is approaching it and that life cannot continue in such forms, I am sure." This idea inspired the largest work of the entire work of "late" Tolstoy - the novel "Resurrection" (1889-1899). Less than ten years separate "Anna Karenina" from "War and Peace". "Resurrection" is separated from "Anna Karenina" by two decades. And although much distinguishes the third novel from the two previous ones, they are united by a truly epic scale in the depiction of life, the ability to "match" individual human destinies with the fate of the people in the narrative. Tolstoy himself pointed to the unity that exists between his novels: he said that "Resurrection" was written in the "old manner," meaning, first of all, the epic "manner" in which "War and Peace" and "Anna Karenina were written. ". "Resurrection" was the last novel in the writer`s work. At the beginning of 1900. The Holy Synod Tolstoy was excommunicated from the Orthodox Church. In the last decade of his life, the writer worked on the novella "Hadji Murad" (1896-1904), in which he sought to compare "the two poles of imperious absolutism" - the European, personified by Nicholas I, and the Asian, personified by Shamil. At the same time, Tolstoy creates one of his best plays - "The Living Corpse". Her hero - a kind-hearted, gentle, conscientious Fedya Protasov leaves the family, breaks off relations with his usual environment, falls to the "bottom" and in the courthouse, unable to bear the lies, pretense, and pharisaism of "respectable" people, with a pistol shot at himself suicide. The article "I Can`t Be Silent" written in 1908, in which he protested against the repressions against the participants in the events of 1905–1907, sounded sharply. The stories of the writer "After the ball", "For what?" Belong to the same period. Weighed down by the way of life in Yasnaya Polyana, Tolstoy more than once planned and did not dare to leave her for a long time. But he could no longer live according to the principle "together-apart" and on the night of October 28 (November 10) secretly left Yasnaya Polyana. On the way, he fell ill with pneumonia and had to stop at the small station Astapovo (now Lev Tolstoy), where he died. On November 10 (23), 1910, the writer was buried in Yasnaya Polyana, in the forest, on the edge of a ravine, where in childhood he and his brother were looking for a "green stick" that kept the "secret" of how to make all people happy. Source: Russian writers. Bibliographic Dictionary. T2. M., Enlightenment. 1990.S. 295