Lewis Carroll (English Lewis Carroll, real name Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson; 1832-1898) – English writer, mathematician, logician, philosopher and photographer. The most famous works – “Alice in Wonderland” and “Alice Through the Looking Glass”, as well as the humorous poem “The Hunt for the Snark”. Biography Born January 27, 1832 in the parish priest`s house in the village of Darsbury, Cheshire. There were 7 girls and 4 boys in the family. He began to study at home, showed himself to be smart and quick-witted. He was left-handed; according to unverified information, he was forbidden to write with his left hand, which traumatized the young psyche. At the age of twelve he entered a small private school near Richmond. He liked it there. But in 1845 he had to enter Rugby School, where he liked much less. In early 1851 he moved to Oxford, where he entered Christ Church, one of the most aristocratic colleges at Oxford University. He did not study very well, but thanks to his outstanding mathematical ability after receiving his bachelor`s degree, he won a competition to give math lectures at Christ Church. He gave these lectures for the next 26 years, and they gave a good income, although they were boring to him. He began his writing career while attending college. He wrote poems and short stories, sending them to various magazines under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. Gradually gained fame. From 1854 his work began to appear in major English publications: The Comic Times, The Train. In 1856, a new dean appeared at the college – Henry Liddell, along with his wife and five children, among whom was 4-year-old Alice. In 1864 he wrote the famous work “Alice in Wonderland”. He also published many scientific papers on mathematics under his own name. One of his hobbies was photography. Died January 14, 1898 in Guildford, Surrey. Friendship with Girls Lewis Carroll was a bachelor. In the past, it was believed that he was not friends with the opposite sex, making an exception for the actress Ellen Terry. Martin Gardner notes : Carroll`s greatest joy was his friendship with little girls. “I love children (not boys),” he once wrote. … Girls (unlike boys) seemed amazingly beautiful to him without clothes. Sometimes he painted or photographed them naked – of course, with the permission of the mothers. Carroll himself considered his friendship with girls completely innocent; there is no reason to doubt that it was so. In addition, in the numerous memories that his little girlfriends later left about him, there is not a hint of any violation of decency. “Carroll`s Myth” The information and quotes below are taken from the article by A. Borisenko and N. Demurova “Lewis Carroll: Myths and Metamorphoses”, which, in turn, is based on the works of Hugues Lebailly and Karoline Leach. In recent decades, it turned out that most of his “little” girlfriends were over 14, many 16-18 and older. Carroll`s friends in their memories often underestimated their age. For example, the actress Isa Bowman writes in her memoirs  As a child, I often amused myself by drawing caricatures, and one day, when he was writing letters, I began to sketch from him on the back of the envelope. Now I don`t remember what the drawing looked like – it must have been an ugly cartoon – but suddenly he turned around and saw what I was doing. He jumped up and blushed terribly, which frightened me very much. Then he grabbed my ill-fated sketch and, tearing it to shreds, silently threw it into the fire. (…) I was then no more than ten or eleven years old, but even now this episode stands before my eyes, as if it were all yesterday … In reality, she was at least 13 years old. Another “young girlfriend” Carroll, Ruth Gamlen, in her memoirs, tells how in 1892 his parents invited Carroll to dinner with Isa, who was visiting him at the time. There, Isa is described as “a shy child of about twelve,” in fact she was 18 in 1892. Carroll himself also called the word “child” not only little girls, but also women 20-30 years old. So, in 1894 he wrote: One of the main joys of my – surprisingly happy – life stems from the affection of my little friends. Twenty or thirty years ago I would say ten is the ideal age; now the age of twenty or twenty-five seems preferable to me. Some of my dear girls are in their thirties and over: I think an older man of sixty-two has a right to still consider them children. Studies have shown that more than half of the “girls” with whom he corresponded are over the age of 14; of the 870 comments he made about acting, 720 refer to adult actors and only 150 to children. In late 19th century Victorian England, girls under 14 were considered asexual. Carroll`s friendship with them was, from the point of view of the then morality, a completely innocent quirk. On the other hand, too close contact with a young woman (especially in private) was severely condemned. This could force Carroll to declare his acquaintances women and girls “little girls”, and they themselves – to underestimate their age. Bibliography * “Useful and edifying poetry” (1845) * “Algebraic analysis of the fifth book of Euclid” (1858) * “Alice in Wonderland” (1865) * “Information from the theory of determinants” (1866) * “An elementary guide to the theory of determinants” (1867) * “The Revenge of Bruno” (the main core of the novel “Sylvie and Bruno”) (1867) * “Through the Mirror and What Alice Saw There” (1871) * “The Hunt for the Snark” (1876) * “The Story with the Knots” ( 1878?) – a collection of riddles and games * Mathematical work “Euclid and his modern rivals”; “Doublets, verbal riddles” (1879) * The first Russian translation of “Wonderland” (1879) * “Euclid” (I and II books) (1881) * Collection “Poems? Meaning?” (1883) * “Logic game” (1887) * “Mathematical curiosities” (part I) (1888) * “Sylvie and Bruno” (part I) (1889) * “Alice for children” and “Round billiards”; “Eight or Nine Wise Words on How to Write Letters” (1890) * “Symbolic Logic” (part I) (1890) * “The conclusion of Sylvie and Bruno” (1893) * The second part of “Mathematical Curiosities” (“Midnight tasks “) (1893) Screen adaptations * Alice in Wonderland (cartoon, 1951) * Alice in Wonderland (film, 1972) * Alice in Wonderland (cartoon, 1981) * Alice Through the Looking Glass (cartoon, 1982) * Alice in the Land Wonderland (film, 1986) * Alice in Wonderland (film, 1999) * Based on “Alice in Wonderland”, many films and cartoons have been shot. The latest, to date, is Tim Burton`s Alice in Wonderland  Martin Gardner The Annotated Alice. Alice`s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll. Illustrated by John Tenniel. With an Introduction and Notes by Martin Gardner. NY, 1960. – 2nd stereotyped edition. – M .: Nauka, 1991. Material from Wikipedia – the free encyclopedia Illustrations for” Alice “by different authors.