James Matthew Barrie James Matthew Barrie 1860-1937 BARRY, JAMES MATTHEW (Barrie, James Matthew) (1860-1937), English playwright and novelist. Born May 9, 1860 in Kirrimyur (Forfarshire, Scotland). Was the ninth child in the family of a weaver. He received his primary education in Kirrimyur and Forfar. After completing a preparatory course at the Academy, Dumfries was enrolled in the University of Edinburgh, from which he graduated in 1882. From January 1883 to October 1884 he worked in the editorial office of the Nottingham Journal. March 27, 1885 went to London, where he lived until the end of his days. For 15 years (1885-1900) Barry was engaged in literary activity. At this time, all his novels were written: the unsuccessful melodrama Better Dead (1888); Small minister (Little Minister, 1891); Sentimental Tommy (1896) and his sequel Tommy and Grizel (Tommy and Grizel, 1900). In these books, there are many Scottish dialectisms and local words, eccentricity, humor, pathos and sentimentality, sometimes there are notes of secret bitterness. After 1900, Barry wrote books for children that formed the story of Peter Pan, and the plays for which he is best known. Barry`s first stage success was the production of a dramatic version of his Minor Servant (1897). However, only Quality Street (Quality Street, 1901; Russian translation under the title In a back street, 1906), a brilliant comedy depicting England in the early 19th century, introduced him to the circle of prominent playwrights of that time. The success was consolidated by plays, among which the best, perhaps, were The Admirable Crichton (1902), Peter Pan (1904), What Every Woman Knows, 1908, Looks like a twelve-pound bill ( The Twelve Pound Look, 1910), A Kiss for Cinderella, 1916, Dear Brutus (1917), The Old Lady Shows Her Medals, 1917, Mary Rose , 1920); all of these works are marked by the same qualities as the early novels. Barry accompanied almost all of his plays with very detailed, verbose stage directions; published a few years after successful premieres, the plays were just as successful. In Barry`s plays, reality is often mixed with fiction, and humor and comic positions are fanned with light sadness. The real fame was brought to the writer by the image of Peter Pan, a boy from the Land of Neverland, who really did not want to become an adult. He first appeared in two of Barry`s early books. In the novel, Tommy and Grisel mentions a toddler who strayed from his parents, who is very glad to be lost, but fears that he will still be found and forced to grow up. Then the boy who did not want to grow up was described in detail in six chapters of the children`s book White Bird (The Litle White Bird, 1902; Russian translation 1918), which were then published as a separate book under the title. Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens (1906) with illustrations by A. Rackham. On stage, Peter Pan staged the play for the first time in December 1904 in London by Charles Frohman. The main characters were Peter Pan`s friends – Sweet Wendy, her brothers John and Michael, the nanny dog Nana, the eccentric fairy Ding-Dili-Don, as well as the Lost Boys, the ferocious pirate Captain Hook-Hook, who has a terrible iron hook instead of one hand, and a relying set of Red Indians, pirates and assorted beasts. Peter and the fairy persuade Wendy and her brothers to flee to the land of Neverland; friends settle in an underground house, swim in the lagoon, go through many terrible adventures, and after Peter`s victory over the pirates, they return home. In 1911, Barry reworked the play into a novel by Peter and Wendy. Barry received many honors: in 1913 he was promoted to baronet, in 1922 he was awarded the Order of Merit; in 1919-1922 he became the rector of the University of St Andrews, in 1930-1937 – the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh; from 1928 he was president of the “Society of Writers”. Barry died in London on June 19, 1937.